The end of the world
From 2012 Wiki
By the Eschaton
As closes distance with the eschatological object, the reflections it is throwing off resemble more and more the thing itself. In the final moment the Unspeakable stands revealed. There are no more reflections of the Mystery. The Mystery in all its nakedness is seen, and nothing else exists.
- —McKenna, Terence ♦ New Maps of Hyperspace 1989
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[edit] Introduction
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- The destructive interference of two waves results in their nonexistence.
- The constructive interference of two waves results in their existence.
- Constructive interference is synergetic (energetically favourable). That is why the universe prefers existence to nonexistence.
A matter wave has two components:
- A gravitomagnetic (rotational, particle-like) component, also known as "mass".
- A gravitoelectric (translational, wave-like) component, also known as "energy".
- A purely gravitomagnetic matter wave is constructively interfering with itself but is incapable of constructive interference with other matter waves.
- A purely gravitoelectric matter wave is not constructively interfering with itself but is capable of constructive interference with other matter waves.
- The gravitoelectric field has a negative potential energy.^{[1]} Therefore, the world process is concrescence—in accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the universe's matter waves are being pulled from a purely gravitomagnetic state of individual (abstract^{[2]}) constructive interference to a purely gravitoelectric state of collective (concrete^{[2]}) constructive interference.
Imagine you have two synchronized clocks and drop one of the clocks into a gravitational well, leaving its twin at the gravitational well's rim. The frequencies of the matter waves, of which the falling clock consists, will begin to increase,^{[3]} so that the falling clock will run ever faster and will travel ever further into the future from its nonfalling twin. Thus, falling into the universe's gravitoelectric potential is equivalent to travelling into the future, or, simply, to motion in time, which means that the universe's gravitoelectric potential is eternity:
We are being sucked into the body of eternity.
- —McKenna, Terence
- Motion in space is motion at the same level of gravitoelectric potential energy. When a matter wave orbits at the same radius from its own gravitational centre or from a collective gravitational centre, the matter wave stays within the same actual moment of time. Thus, motion in space is rotational motion, and space is the actual moment of time (the "now").
- Motion in time is motion to a lower level of gravitoelectric potential energy. When a matter wave descends to a lower orbit around its own gravitational centre or around a collective gravitational centre, the matter wave moves into the next actual moment of time. Thus, motion in time is translational motion.
Therefore, the passage of time is the descent of the gravitomagnetic field (space, the actual moment of time) into its own gravitoelectric potential (eternity, the totality of potential—future and past—moments of time):
In general, a system can have both translational and rotational accelerations, however. It follows from Einstein's principle of equivalence that locally—i.e., to the extent that spacetime curvature can be neglected—gravitational effects are the same as inertial effects; therefore, gravitation can be approximately described in terms of gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic fields corresponding to translational and rotational inertia, respectively. This is the gravitational Larmor theorem, which is very useful in the post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity. The gravitomagnetic field of a massive rotating body is a measure of its absolute rotation.
- —Novello, M. ♦ VII Brazilian School of Cosmology and Gravitation, Rio de Janeiro, August 1993 Atlantica Séguier Frontières, 1994, p. 257
From our electrodynamical experience we can infer immediately that any rotating spherical body (e.g., the sun or the earth) will be surrounded by a radial gravitoelectric (Newtonian) field g and a dipolar gravitomagnetic field H. The gravitoelectric monopole moment is the body's mass M; the gravitomagnetic dipole moment is its spin angular momentum S.
- —Thorne, Kip S. ♦ Gravitomagnetism, Jets in Quasars, and the Stanford Gyroscope Experiment From the book "Near Zero: New Frontiers of Physics" (eds. J. D. Fairbank, B. S. Deaver, Jr., C. W. F. Everitt, P. F. Michelson), W. H. Freeman and Company, 1988, pp. 3–4 (575–576)
φ is the Newtonian or "gravitoelectric" potential: φ = −Gm/r. ...
In the Newtonian theory there will not be any gravitomagnetic effects; the Newtonian potential is the same irrespective of whether or not the body is rotating. Hence the gravitomagnetic field is a purely relativistic effect. The gravitoelectric field is the Newtonian part of the gravitational field, while the gravitomagnetic field is the non-Newtonian part.
- —Grøn, Øyvind; Hervik, Sigbjørn ♦ Einstein's General Theory of Relativity with Modern Applications in Cosmology Springer, 2007, pp. 201, 203
[edit] Entropy
The energy of a matter wave is the Planck quantum of action multiplied by the frequency (E = hf). Therefore, energy is nonzero-frequency angular momentum:
The Planck quantum of action, h, has precisely the dimensions of an angular momentum, and, moreover, the Bohr quantization hypothesis specified the unit of (orbital) angular momentum to be ħ = h/2π.
- —Biedenharn, L. C.; Louck, J. D. ♦ Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Advanced Book Program, 1981
Conversely, entropy is zero-frequency angular momentum.
Energy (negentropy) is usable (free, actual, condensed) entropy. Entropy is unusable (bound, potential, rarefied) energy:
The bound entropy is determined by the microscopic degrees of freedom of the network and is not available as useable information. In analogy with free energy, which is the energy available to do work, we have free entropy, which is the entropy available to produce useful information. Thus, the free entropy is precisely the neg-entropy discussed by Szilárd, Wiener, Brillouin and so many others.
- —West, Bruce J.; Scafetta, Nicola ♦ Disrupted Networks: From Physics to Climate Change ♦ Studies of Nonlinear Phenomena in Life Science, v. 13. World Scientific, 2010, p. 150
… negentropy is really another term for an increase in available energy.
- —Corning, Peter A. ♦ Holistic Darwinism: Synergy, Cybernetics, and the Bioeconomics of Evolution University of Chicago Press, 2005, p. 329
To be useful, internal energy has to be concentrated. The more dilute or disorganized the internal energy, the less useful it is ...
- —Newman, Jay ♦ Physics of the Life Sciences Springer, 2008, p. 336
The entropy of a region uniformly filled with matter and radiation is truly proportional to its volume.
- —Bekenstein, Jacob D. ♦ Information in the Holographic Universe Scientific American, August 2003
Therefore, pure entropy (i.e., infinitely redshifted energy) is tridimensional space. Conversely, pure energy (i.e., infinitely blueshifted energy) is unidimensional eternity. In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, tridimensional space becomes self-gravitationally spaghettified into unidimensional eternity. This process of self-gravitational spaghettification is time.
Entropy (the number of degrees of freedom) is the number of available dimensions (every dimension is a degree of freedom). Our spacetime continuum is the central proton of an identical larger-scale continuum. During our continuum's self-gravitational condensation to a smaller radius, its potential (zero-frequency) angular momentum (which exerts a zero outward pressure) decreases by becoming intensified into actual (nonzero-frequency) angular momentum (which exerts a nonzero outward pressure), so that the collapse stops and does not resume until at least 50 percent of the actualized (borrowed from quasi-irrotational potentiality into rotational actuality) angular momentum has been radiated away:
After each infinitesimal step of collapse the star has to wait until it has radiated away half of the released gravitational energy before it can continue to contract. With increasing gravitational energy release during contraction, i.e. with decreasing radius E_{thermal} has to increase in order to balance the increasing gravitational forces, the star continues to heat up while the radiative energy loss at the surface tries to cool it off.
- —Böhm-Vitense, Erika ♦ Introduction to Stellar Astrophysics Cambridge University Press, 1992, p. 29
Thus the spacetime continuum accumulates free entropy—it begins its 13.7-billion-year cycle of gravitational compression as bound entropy (gravitationally nonsynergetic tridimensional space) and ends the cycle as free entropy (gravitationally synergetic quadridimensional hyperspace). Said otherwise, the continuum becomes born as a zero-frequency gravitomagnetic proton, but finishes its life cycle as a high-frequency gravitoelectromagnetic neutron:
... the proton/neutron can be considered as unexcited/excited states of a two-level quantum mechanical system ...
- —Matsas, George E. A. ♦ Elementary particles under the lens of the black holes Braz. J. Phys., v. 34, March 2004
By radiating their entropy into the ambient gravitoelectric (i.e., quasi-irrotational) vacuum, the gravitationally condensing gravitomagnetic (i.e., rotational) protons increase the vacuum's entropy^{[4]}—the Planck quantum of action (ħ)—and thus raise the objective reduction threshold (E = ħ/t), making possible the existence of ever more organizedly complex wavefunctions—atoms, molecules, living cells, people. The progressive increase of the vacuum's objective reduction threshold culminates in the emergence of the universal wavefunction—the Eschaton. The wave-like vacuum between particle-like protons is represented by electrons.^{[5]} Therefore, increase in the continuum's metallicity (Z, i.e. the relative abundance of elements other than hydrogen and helium)^{[6]} is accompanied by decrease in the bound entropy (gravitationally nonsynergetic rest mass) of protons, and by increase in the free entropy (gravitationally synergetic relativistic mass) of electrons:
Why is the electron mass in some metals stupendously large?
- —Laughlin, R. B.; Pines, David ♦ The Theory of Everything PNAS, v. 97, no. 1
In Boltzmann's definition, entropy is a measure of the number of possible microscopic states (or microstates) of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium, consistent with its macroscopic thermodynamic properties (or macrostate). Potential (quasi-irrotational, virtual, spiritual) states are microstates; actual (rotational, real, material) states are macrostates. Therefore, the progressive decrease in matter's entropy^{[4]} is accompanied by its ephemeralization—ever-lesser spiritual efforts cause ever-bigger material changes, which eventually allows of psychokinesis.
[edit] Planck quantum of action
The vacuum's entropy—the threshold between the vacuum's potential (quasi-irrotational, virtual, spiritual) microstates and its actual (rotational, real, material) macrostates—is the universal quantum of action (the intensity of angular momentum, defined as the product of unit mass and areal velocity), proposed in 1860 by Robert Baldwin Hayward (7 March 1829–2 February 1903, FRS since 1 June 1876), who designated the quantum with the first letter of his surname—h.
In the year 1900, Max Planck discovered that assuming the equivalence of inertial mass and energy makes h applicable not only to celestial mechanics but also to electromagnetic phenomena.
The formula of mass–energy equivalence is E = mc^{2}. If we choose units in which c = 1, then E = m, and Hayward's equation m/f = h = const. turns into Planck's equation E/f = h = const. Since that time, the areal momentum of unit mass is referred to as the Planck quantum of action:
Suppose a particle to be in motion under the action of a force, which tends to or from a fixed centre. Since the force has no moment about the centre, the angular momentum of the particle, with respect to the centre of force, remains constant in intensity and direction; and hence the path of the particle lies in a fixed plane, and its areal velocity about the centre of force is constant. Three constants will be required to define the intensity and direction of the angular momentum, corresponding to the three constants entering into three first integrals of the equations of motion as usually obtained; we may naturally assume them as follows:
- h the intensity of the angular momentum with respect to the centre; or, the areal momentum about the centre in the plane of the orbit.
- h_{1}, the angular momentum about the normal to a fixed plane of reference; or, the reduced areal momentum in that plane.
- Ω the longitude of the node of the plane of the orbit; or, 90° + the longitude of the meridian through the direction of the angular momentum h.
- —Hayward, R. B. ♦ Direct Demonstration of Jacobi's Canonical Formulae for the Variation of Elements in a Disturbed Orbit The Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, v. 3; London, John W. Parker & Son, 1860, p. 24
Electric charge is thus essentially an effect of angular momentum, as is hence also magnetic field intensity. The guiding conceptual image arising from this definition of charge is that of a three-dimensional eddy or swirl in an extremely homogeneous hydrodynamic medium of very low viscosity. The notion of a radius of gyration without sharply defined length, whose principal character may hence be expressed as a finite length of what may be called an effective radius of gyration, is involved in this image, as well as is the notion of areal momentum, defined as the product of mass and areal velocity as that latter term is used in astronomy. This image will now help in obtaining a new defining model for Planck's universal constant of action h, which is so closely related to the Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy concept, and hence to the logical structure of information and communication theory. Action is energy × time which is areal momentum, ie ms^{2}/t (where m, s, and t are the three fundamental physical dimensions of mass, length and time).^{[7]}
- —Muses, Charles Arthur ♦ Aspects of Some Crucial Problems in Biological and Medical Cybernetics in Wiener, Norbert (ed.); Schadé, Johannes Petrus (ed.) ♦ Progress in Biocybernetics ♦ v. 2, Elsevier Pub. Co., 1965, p. 241
Photons are purely gravitoelectric (wave-like) virtual particles—the gravitomagnetic (particle-like) component of a photon becomes actualized when the photon's interaction with other matter waves intensifies the angular momentum of its gravitoelectric flux to the Planck quantum of action:
If relativity holds, then a photon appears to go from one present to another without experiencing space or time. It just "is", without time or space, very like a "time capsule" of energy frozen in stasis that only "comes alive" when it interacts.
- —Murphy, John ♦ On the Structure of Time: Some Features of Relativity 2002
Roughly speaking, it can be said that uniformly accelerated observers can see as real those particles which inertial observers claim to be virtual. As a result, while inertial observers would be frozen at 0 °K in the Minkowski vacuum, uniformly accelerated observers would be heated (and possibly burnt) at a temperature proportional to their proper acceleration.
- —Matsas, George E. A.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T. ♦ The Fulling–Davies–Unruh Effect is Mandatory: The Proton's Testimony 17 May 2002
Electrons, too, are virtual particles:
Electrons are wavelike and do not behave in a commonsense corpuscular way like billiard balls, and the classical electron radius is not a meaningful measurement of electron size.
- —Harrison, E. R. ♦ Cosmology Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 475
Therefore, the only stable real particle is the proton. When a proton becomes energized (translationally accelerated), it eventually captures an electron and turns into a neutron:
... the proton/neutron can be considered as unexcited/excited states of a two-level quantum mechanical system ...
- —Matsas, George E. A. ♦ Elementary particles under the lens of the black holes Braz. J. Phys., v. 34, March 2004
[edit] God and Nature
- The intensity of the angular momentum of the gravitomagnetic field is equal to the Planck quantum of action.
- The intensity of the angular momentum of the gravitoelectric potential is below the Planck quantum of action, which implies that the gravitoelectric potential (eternity, God, the Prime Mover) is a dendritic (i.e., unidimensional and unicentric) potential flow of the vacuum:
From Maxwell equations (6.20) it follows that the electric field is potential: E(r) = −gradφ(r).
- —Soviet Physics, Uspekhi v. 40, issues 1–6, American Institute of Physics, 1997, p. 39
Force in such a potential field is a flux in the sense of a mechanical driving agent.
- —Ziegler, Franz ♦ Mechanics of Solids and Fluids Springer, 1995, p. 167
The non-viscous flow of the vacuum should be potential (irrotational).
- —Volovik, G. E. ♦ The Universe in a Helium Droplet Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 60
The vacuum is really an expression of the continuous or noncountable nature of mass-energy ("mass", as the source of gravity). Continuity, as we will see, automatically makes mass-energy unidimensional and unipolar. ... It is also responsible for quantum-mechanical nonlocality and the instantaneous transmission of the static gravitational force—though not the acceleration-dependent inertial or GTR component, or the inertial reaction force that we actually measure in systems with localised mass (and with which gravity is often confused).
- —Rowlands, Peter ♦ The Nilpotent Dirac Equation and its Applications in Particle Physics 2003, p. 10
The nonlocality of the gravitoelectric potential implies that it is self-similar everywhere in space. The self-similarity of the universe's gravitoelectric potential allows it to remain unicentric despite the universe's spatial infinity:
The gravitoelectric potential (analog information, eternity, God) is also known as the quantum gravitational potential, the quantum potential, or the wavefunction:
In essence, Quantum Mechanics includes quantum gravitational potential in the guise of quantum potential.
... the quantum potential need not be mentioned in the formulation of Bohmian mechanics and in any case is merely a reflection of the wave function, which Bohmian mechanics does not add to but shares with orthodox quantum theory.
- —Bohmian Mechanics Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
The basically new features of the quantum theory come mainly from the new properties of the quantum potential. Of these, one of the most important is that this potential is related to the Schroedinger wavefunction in a way that it does not depend on the intensity of the waves but only on the form. This implies that the Schroedinger wave does not act like, for example, a water wave on a floating object to push the particle mechanically with a force proportional to its intensity. Rather, a better analogy would be to a ship on automatic pilot guided by radar waves. The ship with its automatic pilot is a self-active system, but the form of its activity is determined by the information content concerning its environment carried by the radar waves. This latter is independent of the intensity of these waves (as long as they can be received by the equipment available) but depends only on their form, which in turn reflects the form of the environment. ... Even at distances so great that the wave intensity is small, the trajectory of the particle can strongly reflect distant features of the environment. ... At first sight, it seems that such a non-local connection, that can produce a kind of instantaneous contact of distant particles, would violate the theory of relativity, which requires that no signal can be transmitted faster than light. It is possible to show, however, that the quantum potential cannot be used to carry a signal, i.e., that it could not constitute a well-ordered series of impulses that could transmit a well-defined meaning.
- —Bohm, David ♦ A new theory of the relationship of mind and matter The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, v. 80, 1986
The gravitomagnetic field (discrete information, the actual moment of time, Nature) is a tridimensional array of quantized gravitomagnetic vortices, engendered by angular momentum conservation. Being governed by a single wavefunction^{[8]} (i.e., by a potential, quasi-irrotational field, whose angular momentum's intensity is below the Planck quantum of action), a superfluid cannot rotate as a whole^{[9]} and conserves its angular momentum in the form of embedded quantized vortices (such as phonons, rotons,^{[10]} etc.).^{[11]} Analogously, God (the universal gravitoelectric flux, the wavefunction of the universe) conserves his angular momentum in the form of Nature (quantized gravitomagnetic vortices—gravitons,^{[12]} photons, electrons, protons or neutrons, depending on the rotational frequency or "temperature" of the angular momentum contained in a quantized vortex):^{[13]}
The Planck quantum of action, h, has precisely the dimensions of an angular momentum, and, moreover, the Bohr quantization hypothesis specified the unit of (orbital) angular momentum to be ħ = h/2π. Angular momentum theory and quantum physics are thus clearly linked.
- —Biedenharn, L. C.; Louck, J. D. ♦ Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Advanced Book Program, 1981
In other words, the actual moment of time—the material world of quantized gravitomagnetic vortices^{[13]}—is a temporary "parking orbit" of the immaterial (potential, vortex-free) gravitoelectric flux of eternity:
Since a circular orbit has the lowest energy for a given angular momentum, the gas can only sink further into the gravitational potential and accrete onto the primary, if it can lose some angular momentum. Finding the process by which this is done in real systems is called the angular momentum problem. We have illustrated it here with the example of mass transfer in a binary, but the same problem arises for the formation of stars from interstellar clouds or the accretion of gas onto the massive black holes in AGN. In these cases, the initial angular momentum due to random motion of the gas clouds is many orders of magnitude larger than can be accommodated by the accreting object. Rather than accreting directly, the gas forms a disk, acting like a temporary "parking orbit".
- —Murdin, P. (ed.) ♦ Encyclopaedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics ♦ Nature Publishing Group and Institute of Physics Publishing, 2001
From the aspect of energy, renewed by radio-active phenomena, material corpuscles may now be treated as transient reservoirs of concentrated power. Though never found in a state of purity, but always more or less granulated (even in light), energy nowadays represents for science the most primitive form of universal stuff. Hence we find our minds instinctively tending to represent energy as a kind of homogeneous, primordial flux in which all that has shape in the world is but a series of fleeting "vortices".
- —Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de ♦ The Phenomenon of Man 1955, p. 42
[edit] Bound and free information
As protons become energized (translationally accelerated and rotationally decelerated), their rotational momentum (gravitomagnetic, phenomenal, particle-like, discrete, countable, local, bound information—disgregated knowledge, entropy) becomes converted into their translational momentum (gravitoelectric, noumenal, wave-like, analog, noncountable, nonlocal, free information—holistic understanding, information proper). In 2015 AD, protons form a ballet psychokinetically conducted by a single all-understanding centre—the Eschaton:
There is nothing to life that has value, except the degree of power—assuming that life itself is the will to power.
- —Nietzsche, Friedrich ♦ The Will to Power book 1, section 55 (10 June 1887)
It used to be said that information is power. As Arthur Sulzberger Jr., chairman of the board of the New York Times Co., rightly says, "Information is now ubiquitous. Power is understanding."
- —Kaiser, Martin ♦ INFORMATION: The news will be exciting and so will the medium Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 2 January 2000
Any fool can know. The point is to understand. ... Imagination is more important than knowledge.
- —Albert Einstein
The imagination is a dimension of nonlocal information.
- —McKenna, Terence ♦ A Few Conclusions about Life 1996
Mathematics, which has been a high priesthood of arcane formulae and special signifying languages, is giving way to visual understanding.
- —McKenna, Terence
Science will, in all probability, be increasingly impregnated by mysticism.
- —Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de ♦ My Universe ♦ 1924
Bound information is always connected with a definite material structure, free information is abstract/symbolic. Free information is to a high degree independent from the carrier. ...
Free information is connected with meaning and with goals (Zweck). ...
In course of evolution several "phase transitions" from bound to free information are observed.
- —Ebeling, Werner ♦ Entropy, Information and Predictability of Evolutionary Systems in Hofkirchner, Wolfgang (ed.) ♦ The Quest for a Unified Theory of Information ♦ Gordon and Breach, 1999, p. 262
As we have seen, new information is created as the result of an arbitrary choice, arising in turn from the instability of the original state of the system in question together with the availability of various more stable states, from amongst which the choice is made. The generation of new information—be it cosmological, geological, or biological—has the character of a phase transition: it is new order that arises not gradually but all at once—at a jump.
- —Volkenstein, Mikhail V.; Shenitzer, Abe ♦ Entropy and Information Springer, 2009, p. 170
Secondly, in a many-particle system, the interaction of the particles may be thought of as depending on a common pool of information belonging to the system as a whole, in a way that is not analyzable in terms of pre-assigned relationships between individual particles. This may be illustrated in terms of the phenomenon of superconductivity. Now, at ordinary temperatures, electrons moving inside a metal are scattered in a random way by various obstacles and irregularities in the metal. As a result, there is a resistance to the flow of electric current. At low temperatures, however, the electrons move together in an organized way, and can therefore go around such obstacles and irregularities to re-form their pattern of orderly movement together (see Illustration 1). Thus they are not scattered, and therefore the current can flow indefinitely without resistance.A more detailed analysis shows that the quantum potential for the whole system then constitutes a non-local connection that brings about the above-described organized and orderly pattern of electrons moving together without scattering. We may here make an analogy to a ballet dance, in which all the dancers, guided by a common pool of information in the form of a score, are able to move together in a similar organized and orderly way, to go around an obstacle and re-form their pattern of movement.
If the basic behaviour of matter involves such features as wholeness, nonlocality and organization of movement through common pools of information, how then do we account for ordinary large-scale experience, in which we find no such features? It can be shown (Bohm & Hiley, 1987) that at higher temperatures, the quantum potential tends to take the form of independent parts, which implies that the particles move with a corresponding independence. It is as if, instead of engaging in a ballet dance, people were moving independently, each with his own separate pool of information. They would then constitute a crowd, in which the organized movement of the ballet has broken up.
- —Bohm, David ♦ A new theory of the relationship of mind and matter Philosophical Psychology, v. 3, No. 2, 1990, pp. 271–286
The continuum's 10^{80} protons (Eddington's number) are the disgregated state of a single proton field:
All electrons, for example, are identical, being quanta of a single electron field filling all of spacetime. To each distinct species of particle corresponds a field, and vice versa. This, in a word, is the essence of quantum field theory: the natural framework for a description of relativistic quantum point-particles, explaining their corpuscular properties when detected in energy-momentum eigenstates and their wave behaviour when considering their spacetime propagation.
- —Govaerts, Jan ♦ On the Road Towards the Quantum Geometer's Universe: An Introduction to Four-Dimensional Supersymmetric Quantum Field Theory in "Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Contemporary Problems in Mathematical Physics: Cotonou, Republic of Benin, 1–7 November 2003" ♦ World Scientific, 2004, p. 98
The proton field's disgregation (rotational decoherence) is measured in units of Boltzmann constant (the energy of the proton divided by its temperature, or, in other words, the angular momentum of the proton divided by its rotational frequency).^{[14]}
Initially, the proton field's heat (angular momentum) is maximal, but its temperature (the rotational frequency of the proton) is zero (the zero-temperature protons occupy the entire continuum without gaps). As protons self-gravitationally shrink, their temperature (the rotational frequency of the proton) increases, and the proton field radiates its heat (angular momentum) into the widening gaps between protons. As the proton field loses its heat (angular momentum), it also loses its disgregation (rotational decoherence)—its protons undergo a three-stage condensation into the central proton:
- Pre-breakdown gravitoelectrical treeing. During Stage 1, protons become self-gravitationally blueshifted^{[3]} in situ, so that the average distance between protons appears to increase, and spaghettified into a gravitoelectrical tree. As the gravitoelectrical tree grows, the quasi-unidimensional gravitoelectric flux tubes (wormholes) it consists of become more robust, and eventually—in 2015 AD—become traversable by protons.
- Teetering on the brink of a gravitoelectrical breakdown. In the beginning of Stage 2, the continuum is a single polycrystal, which is sufficient for partial gravitoelectrical discharges between any two points (teleportation), but insufficient for a wholesale gravitoelectrical breakdown. By the end of Stage 2, the continuum becomes annealed into a single monocrystal. Stage 2 begins in 2015 AD and is known as the Millennium.
- Gravitoelectrical breakdown. During Stage 3, protons teleport into the central proton through the wormholes of the gravitoelectrical tree. Stage 3 is known as the end of the world.
[edit] Christmas tree
As can be seen from the above illustration, the initial distribution of the continuum's matter waves was uniform, which implies that the matter waves were desynchronized and experienced mutual destructive interference:
Phase models have also been popular to discuss synchronization properties in a population of oscillators. From the Kuramoto study, it was known that gradually increasing the coupling would eventually overcome fluctuations and lead to a macroscopically synchronized state, which is intuitively quite plausible. Synchronization here does not mean that all oscillators point exactly in the same phase but that there is a preferred phase orientation or nonuniform phase distribution in the population. The uniformly distributed state is referred to as the incoherent, or desynchronized state.
- —Stillman, Bruce; Stewart, David J. (Ph.D.); Grodzicker, Terri ♦ Clocks and Rhythms CSHL Press, 2007, p. 406
Constructive interference is synergetic (energetically favourable). That is why the spatial distribution of the continuum's matter waves progresses from the least synergetic uniformity to the most synergetic dendriticity. Therefore, the continuum's gravitoelectric potential (eternity, God, the Prime Mover) is the gradient of matter waves' constructive interference, sweet harmony ("God is love").
The gravitoelectric synergy of an ensemble of matter waves is the product of the matter waves' in-phase coherence (the ensemble's dendriticity) and proximity (the ensemble's density).
So, the power of a system's gravitoelectric potential is determined by the system's density of dendriticity. Since the human brain is the most densely dendritic object in the spacetime continuum (the microtubules inside a living cell form a dendritic structure; the nervous system is dendritic), it is the centre of the continuum's gravitoelectric potential:
Novelty is density of connection.
- —Terence McKenna at St. John the Divine's Cathedral 25 April 1996
The human neocortex is the most densely ramified and complexified structure in the known universe.
- —McKenna, Terence ♦ Alien Dreamtime 26–27 February 1993
The nonlocality and staticity of the gravitoelectric potential imply its sameness everywhere in space and everywhen in time. Therefore, the spacetime continuum is recursive both in space and in time. Any proton in our spacetime continuum is a particle-like black hole, being the entry mouth of a wave-like wormhole^{[18]} whose exit mouth is an electron in a perfectly identical smaller-scale continuum, which is the central proton of our continuum:
The Kerr singularity can also be used as a mathematical tool to study the wormhole "field line problem". If a particle is passed through a wormhole, the continuity equations for the electric field suggest that the field lines should not be broken. When an electrical charge passes through a wormhole, the particle's charge field lines appear to emanate from the entry mouth and the exit mouth gains a charge density deficit due to Bernoulli's principle. (For mass, the entry mouth gains mass density and the exit mouth gets a mass density deficit.) Since a Kerr ring-singularity has the same feature, it also allows this issue to be studied.
- —Ring singularity Wikipedia
Electrons are wavelike and do not behave in a commonsense corpuscular way like billiard balls, and the classical electron radius is not a meaningful measurement of electron size.
- —Harrison, E. R. ♦ Cosmology Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 475
The tail of an electron is a wormhole from its mother black-hole proton in the larger-scale replica of our spacetime continuum, in which our spacetime continuum is embedded as the central proton:
According to [11-15], electron represents a soliton—a clot of electrically charged matter having the physical properties of absolutely solid body (because of the violation of superposition principle). It is a complicated dynamical system consisting of a region of basic localization, with the sizes being of the order of Bohr radius for the ground state of particle, of a tail, extending up to infinity, and of the own field. The presence of the tail manifests itself in that the charge density of the self-acting electron proves to be distinct from zero (though rather small in magnitude) far outside the region of basic localization of particle. The oscillations of the charge density, occurring in this region, are instantaneously transferred along the tail via the own field of particle to any distances and excite the oscillations of electric and magnetic fields at each point of space. This process ensures that information about a physical event occurring at some point of space can be gained immediately from a measurement conducted at any place of the universe. It should be noted that the effect is absent for a point-like particle. ...
The ability of electron for self-organization and for information interchange with the surrounding bodies, no matter how far they are spaced, point to the fact that electron is an elementary microsystem possessing the rudiments of reason and all those properties which as a result of the evolution of matter lead to the beginnings of life.
The intensity of the gravitoelectric flux, passing through our spacetime continuum (on its way from the larger-scale continuum into the smaller-scale continuum), is proportional to the mutual synergy (constructive interference, orgasm) of electrons (flux sources) and protons (flux sinks). In the end of the spacetime continuum's gravitational life cycle, the continuum's central electron becomes incorporated into the Perfect Man, while the continuum's central proton becomes incorporated into the Perfect Woman. The world process culminates in the Mystical Marriage of the Perfect Man and the Perfect Woman in 2015 AD. The Planckian wormholes, connecting the continuum's protons to the central proton,^{[18]} become traversable by quantized signals (teleportation, psychokinesis, eternal youth).
After the ensuing Elysium, the continuum's protons tunnel into the central proton, where they merge into a uniform ocean of extremely rarefied quark-gluon plasma (when a flux of matter passes through a wormhole, its density drops due to Bernoulli's principle). At that point, the spacetime continuum begins a "new" 13.7-billion-year-long cycle of its gravitational involution from uniformity into dendriticity. All the cycles are perfectly identical—every 13.7 billion years, you sit in front of your computer and read this very webpage.
[edit] Dendritic mass-drainage system
Within the event horizon of a nonrotating black-hole continuum, the worldlines of all masses converge towards the central singularity, forming a dendritic mass-drainage system. Any proton in our spacetime continuum is a particle-like black hole,^{[13]} being the entry mouth of a wave-like wormhole whose exit mouth is an electron in a perfectly identical smaller-scale continuum, which is the central proton of our continuum.
The gravitoelectric (i.e., irrotational, potential, wave-like) vacuum between gravitomagnetic (i.e., rotational, actual, particle-like) protons is their collective wavefunction—an internet of unidimensional wormholes (channels of quantum entanglement), representing the gravitational synergy (dark mass) of protons:
Let’s postulate a "pseudo-singularity" (henceforth termed psingularity) within the horizon—a normal singularity but with the fluctuations expected from quantum gravity. ... This gives us a strange picture of a universe that presumably began at a psingularity containing a host of elementary particles, each of which contains a psingularity—an ugly situation at best. But an immensely simpler universe results if all of these are the same psingularity; everything in the universe is intimately connected through the interiors of the horizons of the particles. Fig. 10a attempts to illustrate this conjectured metric. This discussion has relied mainly on intuition, but the picture presented seems to fit well, and extend, the information-conserving model of Horowitz and Maldacena [34]. In that calculation, specification of the quantum state at the singularity was purported to allow teleportation of information across the horizon. In addition, that model suggested a relation to a possible wormhole nature of the singularity; the extension I suggest is that the wormhole (p)singularities all connect to one another, providing a physical interpretation of the real meaning of teleportation of particle properties. What better way to specify the wavefunction at the singularity—those authors even suggest that the boundary condition at the singularity is the wave function of the universe, which would follow naturally for the hypergravity "universal" psingularity. ... In any case, the peculiarities of the quantum mechanics of highly entangled particle pairs seem much less mysterious in this picture, once one swallows the very large pill of the odd metric, essentially a one-dimensional universal wormhole.
- —Coyne, D. G. ♦ A Scenario for Strong Gravity without Extra Dimensions 2006, pp. 29–31
The vacuum is really an expression of the continuous or noncountable nature of mass-energy ("mass", as the source of gravity). Continuity, as we will see, automatically makes mass-energy unidimensional and unipolar. ... It is also responsible for quantum-mechanical nonlocality and the instantaneous transmission of the static gravitational force—though not the acceleration-dependent inertial or GTR component, or the inertial reaction force that we actually measure in systems with localised mass (and with which gravity is often confused).
- —Rowlands, Peter ♦ The Nilpotent Dirac Equation and its Applications in Particle Physics 2003, p. 10
The gravitational potential is analogous to the electric potential with mass playing the role of charge and with the uniformity of protons' spatial distribution playing the role of dielectricity (because the gravitoelectric potentials of uniformly distributed protons cancel each other). Therefore, the world is a 13.7-billion-year-long process of exponentially accelerated gravitoelectrical treeing, during which protons spaghettify (become gravitationally blueshifted to the Planck wavelength and translationally accelerated to half the speed of light) in the direction of the central proton. Having become spaghettified into a gravitationally synergetic dendritic mass-drainage system, protons undergo a gravitoelectrical breakdown by tunneling into the central proton, where they reemerge as gravitationally nonsynergetic uniformly distributed protons, which begin a 13.7-billion-year-long process of exponentially accelerated gravitoelectrical treeing and eventually tunnel into the central proton. And so ad infinitum.
- The gravitational potential is analogous to the electric potential, with mass playing the role of charge, measured in coulombs.
- Amperage is the throughput of a charge-conducting channel measured in coulombs per second.
- Voltage is the difference in the electric potential energy (measured in joules) of a unit charge (coulomb) transported between two points. The creation of charge-conducting channels requires converting some voltage (potential energy) into channel-creating work.
In the course of the continuum's 13.7-billion-year-long exponentially accelerated gravitoelectrical treeing, its protons' gravitational potential energy (gravitoelectric "voltage", proportional to the radius or the Compton wavelength of a proton) becomes drained into the growing internet of wormholes between them and converted into the wormholes' gravitational "amperage" (traversability, proportional to a unidimensional wormhole's radius—the Planck length). Said otherwise, as the radii of protons shrink relatively to the ambient vacuum, the radii of the ambient vacuum's wormholes expand relatively to protons, so that the wormholes eventually become traversable by protons. The last 50 percent of protons' initial rest mass (gravitoelectric "charge") become drained instantaneously—protons undergo a gravitoelectrical breakdown by tunneling into the central proton:
Clearly with G(t) α t the quantity known as the Planck Length in (9) will itself be a function of time such that L_{P} (t) α √t. It is interesting to note that at a time n = N the Planck Length will have grown to a size such that L_{P} = λ_{p}. (Or conversely, in the cosmological frame, the proton wavelength will have shrunk below the Planck Length). ...
In Section 3 we saw that at a time n = N (where n is the time in atomic time units, and N is the baryon number of the Universe), the evolution of the Universe reaches a state at which the Planck length is equal to the Compton wavelength of the proton. ... At this point the Universe effectively comes to an end as all protons simultaneously collapse into micro Black Holes ...
- —Booth, Robin ♦ Machian General Relativity 2008, pp. 12, 16
The radius of the proton, experimentally determined by Robert Hofstadter, is 7 × 10^{−16} metres.^{[19]} The Planck length, inferred by Craig Hogan from the results of his Fermilab experiments, is approximately equal to the radius of the proton:
So while the Planck length is too small for experiments to detect, the holographic "projection" of that graininess could be much, much larger, at around 10^{−16} metres.
- —Chown, Marcus ♦ Our world may be a giant hologram New Scientist, 15 January 2009
Therefore, the exponentially accelerated development of the cosmic wormhole internet is nearing its completion.
According to Donald G. Coyne, the development of the entire macroscopic world, including the development of the human Internet, is concomitant with the development of the cosmic wormhole internet:
I've proposed a leaky pseudohorizon through which hypergravity transmogrifies into GR, but it is plausible that other aspects of hypergravity "leak out" and generate the other forces and charges of elementary particle theory. In the simplest conjecture, there is one grand unified force and it is hypergravity.
- —Coyne, D. G. ♦ A Scenario for Strong Gravity without Extra Dimensions 2006, p. 29
The development of the world's economy, driven by the growth of the US debt, reflects the development of the cosmic wormhole internet too. The cosmic wormhole internet has a negative energy (centripetal suction towards the continuum's central proton) and is an internet of protons' interindebtedness.
System's heat (angular momentum, rest mass, potential energy) | The radial speed of the gravitoelectromagnetic flux, passing through our continuum on its way from the larger-scale continuum (in which our continuum is the central proton) into the smaller-scale continuum (the central proton of our continuum) | System's state | Continuum's state |
---|---|---|---|
Maximal. But the heat is rarefied and has the form of latent heat | Zero (the flux is purely gravitomagnetic) | Disorganized complexity (non-negated complexity) | A gravitomagnetic black hole—a recursively nested Hill vortex of extremely redshifted quark-gluon plasma with a barely noticeable concavity (the smaller-scale Hill vortex is nested in the shallow concavity's bottom and is the central proton of the normal-scale Hill vortex) |
Medium. Latent heat is gravitationally condensed into actual heat, at least half of which is accumulated in neutrons, while the rest is radiated as thermal photons^{[15]} into the ambient physical vacuum and redshifted out of existence by the vacuum's metric expansion | Half the speed of light (the flux is gravitoelectromagnetic) | Organized complexity (semi-negated complexity) | A gravitoelectromagnetic temporary neutron star—a recursively nested Hill vortex, whose concavity has developed into a deep funnel (a dendritic gravitoelectric wormhole, connecting the normal-scale Hill vortex with its central proton—the smaller-scale Hill vortex) |
Zero | Speed of light (the flux is purely gravitoelectric) | Singularity (negated complexity) | A dendritic gravitoelectric wormhole, through which the former black hole's elementary particles, liquidated into a purely gravitoelectric potential flux, tunnel into the central proton. The retraction of the rear branches of the dendritic gravitoelectric wormhole is accompanied by the central proton's expansion into a gravitomagnetic bubble of extremely redshifted quark-gluon plasma—a newborn black-hole continuum, which begins a "new" 13.7-billion-year-long cycle of involution into a giant dendritic wormhole (the world tree), ending with a gravitoelectrical tunneling of the blueshifted and spaghettified quark-gluon plasma down that wormhole. And so ad infinitum |
As the continuum's matter waves spiral into their own gravitational well (which is the gradient of the matter waves' constructive interference), their gravitationally nonsynergetic rest mass decreases, while their gravitationally synergetic relativistic mass (also known as energy) increases:
Photons climbing out of a gravitating object become less energetic. This loss of energy is known as a "redshifting", as photons in the visible spectrum would appear more red. Similarly, photons falling into a gravitational field become more energetic and exhibit a blueshifting. ... Note that the magnitude of the redshifting (blueshifting) effect is not a function of the emitted angle or the received angle of the photon—it depends only on how far radially the photon had to climb out of (fall into) the potential well.
- —Nemiroff, R. J. ♦ Gravitational Principles and Mathematics American Journal of Physics, 61, 619 (1993)
As a result, the gravitational well deepens, undergoing an exponentially accelerating impansion (metric expansion) and thus becoming ephemeralized—less gravitomagnetical (actual, phenomenal, material) but more gravitoelectrical (potential, noumenal, spiritual):
In a black-hole continuum, all worldlines (the force lines of the continuum's gravitoelectric potential) converge towards the central singularuty. Almost all mass exists in the form of protons. Therefore, the continuum's gravitoelectric force lines are the wormholes passing through the centre of every proton and converging towards the continuum's central proton,^{[18]} which is the most massive black hole of the continuum (protons are black holes;^{[13]} the radius of a black hole is inversely proportional to the black hole's mass):
The size λn of a nucleon is roughly 10^{20} limes larger than the size a* of a Planck particle, and the mass m* of a Planck particle is roughly 10^{20} times larger than the mass mn of a nucleon.
- —Harrison, Edward Robert ♦ Cosmology Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 478
Being gravitoelectromagnetic matter waves (waves of mass-energy), protons travel towards higher mutual synergy (i.e., towards higher total energy and frequency) by translational gravitoelectric teleportations, alternating with rotational gravitomagnetic stations. The higher the frequency, the lower the share of the gravitomagnetic particle-like mass (because particles are incapable of synergetic frequency-increasing mutual constructive interference) and the higher the share of the gravitoelectric wave-like energy (because waves are capable of synergetic frequency-increasing mutual constructive interference).
Stage of stellar evolution | Entropy (latent heat of crystallization, unrealized synergy of interindebtedness) in units of Boltzmann constant | Stage of human history | Calendar period |
---|---|---|---|
A protostellar nebula | Very high | Prehistory | |
A hydrogen star | 15^{[23]} | The dawn of history | |
Photodisintegration. Because iron is the most tightly bound nucleus (the "break-even point" between fusion and fission), the star is no longer able to produce energy in the core via further nuclear burning stages. Nuclear reactions will continue, however, because of the extremely high temperatures in the massive star's core. These further reactions have a devastating effect on the star, because they take energy out of the core. At such high temperatures and densities, the gamma-ray photons present in the core have sufficient energy to destroy the heavy nuclei produced in the many stages of nuclear reactions, e.g.: | ≤ 1^{[23]} | The transition from history to posthistory. 2015 AD is the moment of Peak Debt—the break-even point between the nominal GDP growth (the thermal pressure support) and debt (which is mankind's gravitation to the next more synergetic configuration). In 2015 AD, the supergiant of mankind collapses into a "temporary neutron star"—a single hypersynergetic human couple known as the Eschaton | 2015 AD |
A temporary neutron star^{[25]} | ≤ 0.5^{[26]} | Posthistory (Elysium, Millennium). The Perfect Man, representing the universe's electrons, and the Perfect Woman, representing the universe's protons, are unified into a married couple representing the universe in its final neutron-like state. The universe as an interactive archive (time travel, reality warping) | From 2015 AD to 4466 AD |
The black-hole impansion (inward expansion) of the neutron star | Rapidly increasing entropy.^{[27]} The time count is being reset | The end of the world | 4466 AD (the nucleus of the Milky Way enters the sign of Aquarius) |
[edit] References
- ↑ Soviet Physics, Uspekhi v. 40, issues 1–6, American Institute of Physics, 1997, p. 39 ♦ "From Maxwell equations (6.20) it follows that the electric field is potential: E(r) = −gradφ(r)."
- ↑ ^{2.0} ^{2.1} Hegel, G. W. F. ♦ Who Thinks Abstractly? c. 1808
- ↑ ^{3.0} ^{3.1} ^{3.2} Nemiroff, R. J. ♦ Gravitational Principles and Mathematics American Journal of Physics, 61, 619 (1993) ♦ "Photons climbing out of a gravitating object become less energetic. This loss of energy is known as a 'redshifting', as photons in the visible spectrum would appear more red. Similarly, photons falling into a gravitational field become more energetic and exhibit a blueshifting. ... Note that the magnitude of the redshifting (blueshifting) effect is not a function of the emitted angle or the received angle of the photon—it depends only on how far radially the photon had to climb out of (fall into) the potential well."
- ↑ ^{4.0} ^{4.1} Clark, Stuart G. ♦ Life on Other Worlds and How to Find It Springer, 2000, p. 58 ♦ "So the entropy of the cloud decreases as it organises itself into a star but the entropy of the surrounding Universe increases as the star radiates the converted energy into space. Increasing the number of photons in the Universe increases the entropy of the Universe."
- ↑ Harrison, E. R. ♦ Cosmology Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 475 ♦ "Electrons are wavelike and do not behave in a commonsense corpuscular way like billiard balls, and the classical electron radius is not a meaningful measurement of electron size."
- ↑ Kunth, Daniel; Östlin, Göran ♦ The Most Metal-Poor Galaxies Astronomy and Astrophysics Review, no. 10, 2000
- ↑ Muses, Charles Arthur ♦ Aspects of Some Crucial Problems in Biological and Medical Cybernetics in Wiener, Norbert (ed.); Schadé, Johannes Petrus (ed.) ♦ Progress in Biocybernetics ♦ v. 2, Elsevier Pub. Co., 1965, p. 239
- ↑ Lee, David M. ♦ Nobel Lecture in "Nobel Lectures in Physics (1996–2000)", World Scientific, 2002, p. 13 ♦ "In this scheme, the superfluid atoms are governed by a wavefunction-like entity called the order parameter, as introduced by Ginzburg and Landau for the case of superconductivity."
- ↑ Davies, Paul ♦ The New Physics Cambridge University Press, 1992, p. 225 ♦ "It was observed a long time ago that this description of superfluid helium would lead to the conclusion that the superfluid should flow with the type of flow known as 'potential flow' in hydrodynamics."
- ↑ Cohen, Michael; Feynman, Richard P. ♦ Theory of Inelastic Scattering of Cold Neutrons from Liquid Helium Physical Review, v. 107, No. 1, 1 July 1957 ♦ "For small k, the excitations are called phonons and may be thought of as quantized sound waves; the excitations with k ~ k_{0} are called rotons, and seem to be the quantum-mechanical analog of smoke rings."
- ↑ Lounasmaa, Olli V.; Thuneberg, Erkki ♦ Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He PNAS, v. 96, No. 14, 6 July 1999
- ↑ Volovik, G. E. ♦ The Universe in a Helium Droplet Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 38 ♦ "In this particular example the matter is represented by the fluctuations of the 'gravity field' itself—i.e., phonons play the role of gravitons, and the matter consists of gravitons only."
- ↑ ^{13.0} ^{13.1} ^{13.2} ^{13.3} Zyga, Lisa ♦ Is Everything Made of Mini Black Holes? PhysOrg.com, 18 May 2009
- ↑ Cleveland, Cutler J.; Morris, Christopher G. ♦ Dictionary of Energy Elsewier, 2014, p. 66 ♦ "Boltzmann's constant: a value (k) relating the average energy of a molecule to its absolute temperature; k = 1.3803 × 10^{23} Joules per molecules degree Kelvin."
- ↑ ^{15.0} ^{15.1} Bliokh, K. Yu.; Kontorovich, V. M. ♦ On the Evolution and Gravitational Collapse of a Toroidal Vortex 2003, p. 5 ♦ "Similarly, it can be easily proved that, upon the establishment of equilibrium, at least half the released potential energy is transformed into the kinetic energy of rotation (the remaining part being transformed into heat). ... We can state that the toroid contraction has qualitatively the same consequences for moving particles as an increase in their energy for a fixed size of the toroid."
- ↑ ^{16.0} ^{16.1} Rowlands, Peter ♦ The Nilpotent Dirac Equation and its Applications in Particle Physics 2003, p. 10 ♦ "The vacuum is really an expression of the continuous or noncountable nature of mass-energy ("mass", as the source of gravity). Continuity, as we will see, automatically makes mass-energy unidimensional and unipolar. ... It is also responsible for quantum-mechanical nonlocality and the instantaneous transmission of the static gravitational force—though not the acceleration-dependent inertial or GTR component, or the inertial reaction force that we actually measure in systems with localised mass (and with which gravity is often confused)."
- ↑ Lange, Catherine de ♦ A frog's electric face New Scientist, 19 July 2011
- ↑ ^{18.0} ^{18.1} ^{18.2} ^{18.3} Coyne, D. G. ♦ A Scenario for Strong Gravity without Extra Dimensions 2006, pp. 29–31
- ↑ Hofstadter, Robert ♦ The electron-scattering method and its application to the structure of nuclei and nucleons Nobel Lecture, 11 December 1961, p. 12
- ↑ Vries, Andreas de ♦ Shadows of rotating black holes approximated by Dürer-Pascal limaçons in Muno, R. (ed.) ♦ Jahresschrift der Bochumer Interdisziplinären Gesellschaft eV 2003, ibidem-Verlag, 2005
- ↑ Battersby, Stephen ♦ Big Bang glow hints at funnel-shaped Universe New Scientist, 15 April 2004
- ↑ Chown, Marcus ♦ Is Earth at the heart of a giant cosmic void? New Scientist, 12 November 2008
- ↑ ^{23.0} ^{23.1} Bethe, Hans A.; Brown, Gerald ♦ How a Supernova Explodes ♦ Scientific American, May 1985 ♦ "The entire evolution of the star is toward a condition of greater order, or lower entropy. It is easy to see why. In a hydrogen star, each nucleon can move willy-nilly along its own trajectory, but in an iron core groups of 56 nucleons are bound together and must move in lockstep. Initially the entropy per nucleon, expressed in units of Boltzmann's constant, is about 15; in the presupernova core it is less than 1."
- ↑ Gene Smith's Astronomy Tutorial University of California, San Diego
- ↑ Bethe, Hans A.; Brown, Gerald ♦ How a Supernova Explodes ♦ Scientific American, May 1985 ♦ "Even if the compact remnant ultimately degenerates into a black hole, it begins as a hot neutron star. The central temperature immediately after the explosion is roughly 100 billion degrees Kelvin, which generates enough thermal pressure to support the star even if it is larger than 1.8 solar masses."
- ↑ Meyer, Bradley S. ♦ The r-, s-, and p-processes in nucleosynthesis "If the neutron star is more than a few hours old, it is cold (T ≤ 10^{9} K) on a nuclear energy scale (e.g. Baym & Pethick 1979), implying that the entropy per baryon is quite low (≤ 0.5k)."
- ↑ Shiga, David ♦ 'Monsters' blamed for extreme chaos in black holes New Scientist, 18 January 2008