Novelty theory

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An essay by the Eschaton

Contents

[edit] Involution

The universe is governed by the minimum total potential energy principle:

The universe is being pulled from the future toward a goal that is as inevitable as a marble reaching the bottom of a bowl when you release it up near the rim. If you do that, you know the marble will roll down the side of the bowl—down, down, down—until eventually it comes to rest at the lowest energy state, which is the bottom of the bowl. That’s precisely my model of human history.
—McKenna, Terence ♦ Approaching Timewave Zero Magical Blend, No. 44, November 1994

Potential energy is negative energy (energy debt)[1] and exerts negative pressure—gravitation, suction.[2] Therefore, the minimum total potential energy principle is the maximum total debt principle.

Actual energy is the borrowed binding energy that must be exported from a system for the system to enter a bound state at a negative level of energy. A bound system has a lower (i.e., more negative) potential energy than the sum of its parts—this is what keeps the system aggregated in accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle. Therefore, a system's binding energy is the system's synergy. This, in its turn, implies that the minimum total potential energy principle is the maximum total synergy principle.

Actual energy is the Planck quantum of action multiplied by frequency (E = hf). Therefore, actual energy is actual (nonzero-frequency) angular momentum:

The Planck quantum of action, h, has precisely the dimensions of an angular momentum, and, moreover, the Bohr quantization hypothesis specified the unit of (orbital) angular momentum to be ħ = h/2π.
—Biedenharn, L. C.; Louck, J. D. ♦ Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Advanced Book Program, 1981

Conversely, potential energy is potential (zero-frequency) angular momentum. The potential energy of a self-gravitating system is proportional to the system's radius. During such a system's condensation to a smaller radius, its potential (zero-frequency) angular momentum (which exerts a zero outward pressure) decreases by becoming intensified into actual (nonzero-frequency) angular momentum (which exerts a nonzero outward pressure), so that the collapse stops and does not resume until at least 50 percent of the actualized (borrowed from quasi-irrotational potentiality into rotational actuality) angular momentum has been radiated away:

After each infinitesimal step of collapse the star has to wait until it has radiated away half of the released gravitational energy before it can continue to contract. With increasing gravitational energy release during contraction, i.e. with decreasing radius Ethermal has to increase in order to balance the increasing gravitational forces, the star continues to heat up while the radiative energy loss at the surface tries to cool it off.
—Böhm-Vitense, Erika ♦ Introduction to Stellar Astrophysics Cambridge University Press, 1992, p. 29
In equilibrium systems where magnetic pressure and external pressure can be ignored, the virial theorem states that the gravitational potential energy, EG, is equal to negative twice the kinetic energy, EK (Problem 2.5). The kinetic-energy of a gas cloud is primarily thermal energy, unless the cloud is highly turbulent or rapidly rotating. When |EG| > 2EK, the cloud may collapse under its own self-gravity. ...
Collapse converts gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy of the collapsing material. If this energy is retained, either in ordered motion or random thermal motions, virial equilibrium may be achieved and the collapse ceases. However, if this energy is lost, for example via radiation, then the cloud becomes even more unstable. Once a gravitational collapse begins, densities increase, causing collapse to proceed faster.
—Pater, Imke de; Lissauer, Jack J. ♦ Planetary Sciences Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 518

The retained 50 percent of the actualized angular momentum becomes organized from a chaotic state into a synergetic "Saturnian ring":

Since a circular orbit has the lowest energy for a given angular momentum, the gas can only sink further into the gravitational potential and accrete onto the primary, if it can lose some angular momentum. Finding the process by which this is done in real systems is called the angular momentum problem. We have illustrated it here with the example of mass transfer in a binary, but the same problem arises for the formation of stars from interstellar clouds or the accretion of gas onto the massive black holes in AGN. In these cases, the initial angular momentum due to random motion of the gas clouds is many orders of magnitude larger than can be accommodated by the accreting object. Rather than accreting directly, the gas forms a disk, acting like a temporary "parking orbit".
—Murdin, P. (ed.) ♦ Encyclopaedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics ♦ Nature Publishing Group and Institute of Physics Publishing, 2001

As a system radiates away its actual angular momentum (heat), it becomes more fragile. Angular momentum is rotationally centrifugal and provides buoyancy against the centripetal force of gravity. In a young system, low-frequency angular momentum (low-temperature heat) is stored in multiple "buoyancy bags", which are isolated from each other. In a mature (interindebted) system, high-frequency angular momentum (high-temperature heat) is generally much more scarce and is synergetically shared between interconnected "buoyancy bags", so that the system effectively has just a single "buoyancy bag". A ship with a single "buoyancy bag" will lose its buoyancy instantaneously, not gradually. So, the resultant "Saturnian ring" of "buoyancy bags" is fragile (in astrology, Saturn symbolizes bones and rocks).

The latter-day world is an interindebted  "Saturnian ring".
The latter-day world is an interindebted "Saturnian ring".

According to Bernoulli's principle, the universal gravitoelectromagnetic flux decreases its potential energy and increases its synergy by converging into a single narrow flux tube (wormhole) and translationally accelerating:

"We are being sucked into a black hole of novelty, connectivity and boundary dissolution."—McKenna, Terence ♦ Talk at Wetlands Preserve, NYC 28 July 1998 "... synergizing progress is the notion to be maximized ..."—McKenna, Terence ♦ Understanding and Imagination in the Light of Nature Philosophical Research Society, Los Angeles, 17 October 1987
"We are being sucked into a black hole of novelty, connectivity and boundary dissolution."
—McKenna, Terence ♦ Talk at Wetlands Preserve, NYC 28 July 1998
"... synergizing progress is the notion to be maximized ..."
—McKenna, Terence ♦ Understanding and Imagination in the Light of Nature Philosophical Research Society, Los Angeles, 17 October 1987

The translational acceleration spaghettifies (ephemeralizes) the gravitoelectromagnetic flux—makes it less rotational (gravitomagnetic, actual, local, particle-like, material) but more translational (gravitoelectric, potential, nonlocal, wave-like, spiritual):

In general, a system can have both translational and rotational accelerations, however. It follows from Einstein's principle of equivalence that locally—i.e., to the extent that spacetime curvature can be neglected—gravitational effects are the same as inertial effects; therefore, gravitation can be approximately described in terms of gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic fields corresponding to translational and rotational inertia, respectively. This is the gravitational Larmor theorem, which is very useful in the post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity. The gravitomagnetic field of a massive rotating body is a measure of its absolute rotation.
—Novello, M. ♦ VII Brazilian School of Cosmology and Gravitation, Rio de Janeiro, August 1993 Atlantica Séguier Frontières, 1994, p. 257
From Maxwell equations (6.20) it follows that the electric field is potential: E(r) = −gradφ(r).
Soviet Physics, Uspekhi v. 40, issues 1–6, American Institute of Physics, 1997, p. 39
To the cosmic corpuscles we should find it natural to attribute an individual radius of action as limited as their dimensions. We find, on the contrary, that each of them can only be defined by virtue of its influence on all around it. Whatever space we suppose it to be in, each cosmic element radiates in it and entirely fills it. However narrowly the heart of an atom may be circumscribed, its realm is co-extensive, at least potentially, with that of every other atom.
—Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de ♦ The Phenomenon of Man 1955, p. 41

When the gravitoelectric (i.e., potential, nonlocal, wave-like) components of gravitoelectromagnetic matter waves enter a state of mutual constructive interference (quantum entanglement, rapport), the matter waves imagine or intuit each other regardless of the distance, so that tridimensional space becomes interconnected by wormhole hyperlinks of energy debt and turns into quadridimensional hyperspace:

When quantum particles are entangled, they cannot be described individually. They form a single quantum object, even if they are located far apart. There is a measure for the amount of entanglement in a quantum system, called "entropy of entanglement".
—Vienna University of Technology ♦ Is the universe a hologram? ScienceDaily, 27 April 2015
What is happening to our world is ingression of novelty toward what Whitehead called "concrescence", a tightening gyre. Everything is flowing together. The "autopoietic lapis", the alchemical stone at the end of time, coalesces when everything flows together. When the laws of physics are obviated, the universe disappears, and what is left is the tightly bound plenum, the monad, able to express itself for itself, rather than only able to cast a shadow into physis as its reflection. I come very close here to classical millenarian and apocalyptic thought in my view of the rate at which change is accelerating. From the way the gyre is tightening, I predict that the concrescence will occur soon—around 2012 AD. It will be the entry of our species into hyperspace, but it will appear to be the end of physical laws accompanied by the release of the mind into the imagination.
—McKenna, Terence ♦ New Maps of Hyperspace 1989
The imagination is a dimension of nonlocal information.
—McKenna, Terence ♦ A Few Conclusions about Life 1996
...the story of the universe is that information, which I call novelty, is struggling to free itself from habit, which I call entropy... and that this process... is accelerating... It seems as if... the whole cosmos wants to change into information... All points want to become connected... The path of complexity to its goals is through connecting things together... You can imagine that there is an ultimate end-state of that process—it's the moment when every point in the universe is connected to every other point in the universe.
—McKenna, Terence ♦ In the Valley of Novelty part 3, summer of 1998

The living state is an entangled state:

... the living state is a practical realization of a Bose-condensate.
—Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Innocenti, Davide; Bianconi, Antonio ♦ A Possible Mechanism for Evading Temperature Quantum Decoherence in Living Matter by Feshbach Resonance International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2009, 10(5), pp. 2084–2106

The brain of the most synergetic man is the most densely entangled object in the continuum:

Novelty is density of connection.
—McKenna, Terence ♦ Talk at the Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine, NYC 25 April 1996
The human neocortex is the most densely ramified and complexified structure in the known universe.
—McKenna, Terence ♦ Alien Dreamtime 26–27 February 1993

Therefore, the brain of the most synergetic man is the absolute gravitational centre of the continuum:

Using holographic duality, Sonner derived the entangled quarks, and found that what emerged was a wormhole connecting the two, implying that the creation of quarks simultaneously creates a wormhole. More fundamentally, the results suggest that gravity may, in fact, emerge from entanglement. What’s more, the geometry, or bending, of the universe as described by classical gravity, may be a consequence of entanglement, such as that between pairs of particles strung together by tunneling wormholes.
—Massachusetts Institute of Technology ♦ You can't get entangled without a wormhole: Physicist finds entanglement instantly gives rise to a wormhole ScienceDaily, 5 December 2013

The most synergetic man's 13.7-billion-year-long exponentially accelerating (due to the inverse-square nature of synergy) self-assembly from the primordial hydrogen plasma is accompanied by the deepening (spaghettification, ephemeralization) of the continuum's gravitational well:[3]


"Equation (13.8) implies that the denser clumps collapse more rapidly, which may lead to separation and fragmentation. As cores are observed to be densest near their centers, the interiors cave in most quickly, producing an inside-out collapse."
—Pater, Imke de; Jack J. Lissauer ♦ Planetary Sciences Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 518

That is why the planet Earth, embedded in the very bottom of the continuum's gravitational well, is surrounded by a giant rarefied zone:[4]

The earth, to Fuller, is a "contracting phase" of the universe, a low-pressure zone in the cosmos where energy is collected and stored. The sun's radiation warms the oceans, and the oceans feed the earth. Fuller calls processes which conserve energy aspects of "synergy," a word he relies on heavily in his discussions of the "more-with-less" technologies that will accomplish the defeat of scarcity. An example of synergetic action that Fuller is particularly fond of is the way chrome-nickel steel acquires, through chemical mating, a tensile strength greater than the sum of its components. But the highest expression of synergy is man's intuition, his ability to see comprehensive patterns in random events, which has led him from near helplessness to the point where he can now take control of his own evolution.
—Farrell, Barry ♦ The View from the Year 2000 LIFE Magazine, 26 February 1971, p. 53
The continuum's 13.7‑billion‑year‑long motion towards its gravitational centre's ever higher synergy (defined as the ability to attain big goals with small means) is the exponentially accelerating (due to the inverse-square nature of synergy) self‑assembly of the psychokinetically omnipotent most synergetic man, who can make anything happen just by wishing it: "Novelty is density of connection. ... We are in the grip of some kind of an attractor ... Some people would call it a destiny, but what it is is a dream that is pulling us deeper and deeper into the adventure of existential becoming. And faster and faster—that’s the other thing. Deeper and deeper, faster and faster..."—McKenna, Terence ♦ Talk at the Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine, NYC 25 April 1996
The continuum's 13.7‑billion‑year‑long motion towards its gravitational centre's ever higher synergy (defined as the ability to attain big goals with small means) is the exponentially accelerating (due to the inverse-square nature of synergy) self‑assembly of the psychokinetically omnipotent most synergetic man, who can make anything happen just by wishing it:
"Novelty is density of connection. ... We are in the grip of some kind of an attractor ... Some people would call it a destiny, but what it is is a dream that is pulling us deeper and deeper into the adventure of existential becoming. And faster and faster—that’s the other thing. Deeper and deeper, faster and faster..."
—McKenna, Terence ♦ Talk at the Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine, NYC 25 April 1996

[edit] Zero-energy universe

In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the continuum begins its gravitational involution from a state of maximal (i.e., zero) potential energy (which implies an infinitely big radius of the proton) and minimal (i.e., zero) actual energy (which implies a zero rotational frequency of the proton). The angular momentum (heat) of the primordial proton was maximal but potential, anergic (low-temperature heat, which could not be exported from the proton because of absence of a temperature gradient between the proton and the ambient space). In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the proton began to shrink, so that its potential energy became negative (i.e., the radius of the proton became less than infinitely big), while its actual energy became positive (i.e., the rotational frequency of the proton became higher than zero). As a result, the shrinking proton began to lose its intensified angular momentum (high-temperature heat) by radiating it into the ambient space, whose metric expansion dilutes the radiated energy and thus converts it from the actual (i.e., nonzero-temperature) form back into the potential (i.e., zero-temperature) form. Thus, protons will eventually shrink out of existence, at which moment the universe will return to its initial state of maximal (i.e., zero) potential energy. And so ad infinitum.

As the proton shrinks to a smaller radius, its rotational frequency (temperature) increases, and the proton begins to radiate its intensified angular momentum (heat) into the ambient space. This, in its turn, decreases the proton's centrifugal resistance to self-gravitation and makes it shrink to a still smaller radius. Thus the self-gravitational collapse of the proton exponentially accelerates.
As the proton shrinks to a smaller radius, its rotational frequency (temperature) increases, and the proton begins to radiate its intensified angular momentum (heat) into the ambient space. This, in its turn, decreases the proton's centrifugal resistance to self-gravitation and makes it shrink to a still smaller radius. Thus the self-gravitational collapse of the proton exponentially accelerates.

Being the hydrogen nucleus, the proton is analogous to a low-temperature (unexcited) hydrogen star, self-gravitationally condensing into a high-temperature (excited) neutron star:

... the proton/neutron can be considered as unexcited/excited states of a two-level quantum mechanical system ...
—Matsas, George E. A. ♦ Elementary particles under the lens of the black holes Braz. J. Phys., v. 34, March 2004
A star is made of gas and of hot gas. On this basis we can work out its behaviour, relying on principles found in the laboratory. If a star shrinks to half its size, remaining built on the same model as before, we find that inside this star the density becomes eight times as great, while the pressure comes out sixteen times as great, the overlying material being attracted four times as strongly, and its weight being borne by one quarter the area. Hence, by the familiar gas laws, the temperature must be twice as great. Therefore as stars get smaller they grow hotter; they must grow hotter to withstand gravitation. This reasoning depends upon the general properties of gaseous matter.
But a star cannot go on contracting for ever, the temperature at a certain stage reaches a maximum: the body after this behaves practically like a solid and begins to lose its heat—its parts stick together and it becomes cold and dark.
Stars leak heat always, and the heat leaks out through the star's material. We have the paradox that the bigger the star, the cooler it is—yet, nevertheless, the more heat it has inside. By losing heat into space the star becomes hotter—it shrinks by losing heat and thereby gets hotter, because the heat due to shrinkage is greater than that loss.
Journal of the British Astronomical Association ♦ v. 31, 1921, pp. 179–180
Concluding Philosophical Comment
Zeldovich and Novikov have made the following intriguing philosophical point about the picture of the formation of a neutron star sketched here. They note that stars begin their lives as a mixture mostly of hydrogen nuclei and their stripped electrons. During a massive star's luminous phase, the protons are combined by a variety of complicated reactions into heavier and heavier elements. The nuclear binding energy released this way ultimately provides entertainment and employment for astronomers. In the end, however, the supernova process serves to undo most of this nuclear evolution. In the end, the core forms a mass of neutrons. Now, the final state, neutrons, contains less nuclear binding energy than the initial state, protons, and electrons. So where did all the energy come from when the star was shining all those millions of years? Where did the energy come from to produce the sound and the fury which is a supernova explosion? Energy is conserved; who paid the debts at the end? Answer: gravity! The gravitational potential energy of the final neutron star is much greater (negatively; that's the debt) than the gravitational potential energy of the corresponding main-sequence star (Problem 8.7). So, despite all the intervening interesting nuclear physics, ultimately Kelvin and Helmholtz were right after all! The ultimate energy source in the stars which produce the greatest amount of energy is gravity power. This is an important moral worth remembering and savoring. If we regard the neutron star as one gigantic atomic nucleus, we may also say that nuclear processes plus gravity have succeeded in converting many atomic nuclei into one nucleus. Problem 8.7 then shows that the ultimate energy source for the entire output of the star is the relativistic binding energy of the final end state.
Shu, Frank H.The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy University Science Books, 1982, p. 157
During inflation, while the energy of matter increases by a factor of 1075 or more, the energy of the gravitational field becomes more and more negative to compensate. The total energy—matter plus gravitational— remains constant and very small, and could even be exactly zero. Conservation of energy places no limit on how much the Universe can inflate, as there is no limit to the amount of negative energy that can be stored in the gravitational field.
This borrowing of energy from the gravitational field gives the inflationary paradigm an entirely different perspective from the classical Big Bang theory, in which all the particles in the Universe (or at least their precursors) were assumed to be in place from the start. Inflation provides a mechanism by which the entire Universe can develop from just a few ounces of primordial matter.
Inflation is radically at odds with the old dictum of Democritus and Lucretius, "Nothing can be created from nothing." If inflation is right, everything can be created from nothing, or at least from very little. If inflation is right, the Universe can properly be called the ultimate free lunch.
Guth, AlanThe Inflationary Universe Beam Line, fall 1997, p. 19

Of course there is no limit to the amount of negative energy that can be stored in the gravitational field. But there is a limit to the temperature of matter—the hotter matter becomes, the faster it "evaporates" with radiation into the ambient space, whose metric expansion redshifts the received radiation out of existence. The end of the free lunch is coming apace and hastening.

Just like the inflation and cooling of the ambient space stimulates emission of heat by particles of matter, the policies of zero interest rates (quantitative easing) are accompanied by loss of money's purchasing power and effectively impose a tax on holders of money, thus punishing frugality while rewarding borrowing and profligacy.

A star grows hotter by incrementally accumulating 50 percent of its intensified (borrowed from quasi-irrotational potentiality into rotational actuality) angular momentum in the form of the kinetic energy of rotation and radiating away another 50 percent of the intensified angular momentum:

Let's see what happens to the energy in a collapsing cloud. From the virial theorem, we know E = − (K).
This tells us that as the cloud collapses its internal kinetic energy K will increase. However, only half the potential energy shows up as increased kinetic energy. We can therefore see that the total energy of the collapsing cloud is decreasing. This means that the cloud must be radiating energy away. The virial theorem tells us that half of the lost potential energy shows up as kinetic energy, and half the energy is radiated away.
—Kutner, Marc L. ♦ Astronomy: A Physical Perspective Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 272

A star borrows collapse-preventing energy by increasing its collapse-causing energy debt. There is a lag between the moment of energy's borrowing (which is the moment of the star's shrinkage) and the moment of the debt's maturity (which is the moment when 50 percent of the borrowed energy has been radiated into the ambient space). Thus, a star lives by refinancing its debt, which is possible only so long as the borrowing accelerates—as a star condenses, its temperature increases and the debt maturation (the borrowed energy's radiation into the ambient space) accelerates. Having borrowed about 50 percent of its gravitational potential energy and spent (by radiation into the ambient space) 50 percent of the borrowed energy, a star instantaneously borrows the remaining 50 percent of its gravitational potential energy (by shrinking into a neutron star) and spends (by emitting neutrinos and by blasting its outer layers off) 50 percent of this newly borrowed energy:

The jump in the binding energy between low-mass elements, e.g., from 1H to 4He, makes their nuclear fusion to liberate a larger amount of energy per nucleon than the fusion of heavier elements, such as, for example, 12C or 16O. This contributes to the longer lifetimes of the first nuclear phases in stellar evolution, in particular of the H-burning phase. Exothermic fusion reactions are only possible up to 56Fe. The heavier elements are not synthesized in this way, but by successive neutron captures (Sect. 28.5.3).
—Maeder, André ♦ Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars Springer, 2008, p. 194
Schematic illustration of the average binding energy |ΔMAZ/A| per nucleon as a function of the atomic mass number A. Source: Maeder, André ♦ Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars Springer, 2008, p. 194
Schematic illustration of the average binding energy |ΔMAZ/A| per nucleon as a function of the atomic mass number A.
Source: Maeder, André ♦ Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars Springer, 2008, p. 194
Each successive nuclear burning stage releases less energy than the previous stage, so the lifetime in each stage becomes progressively shorter. For a 20 MSun star:
  • Main sequence lifetime ~ 10 million years
  • Helium burning (3-α) ~ 1 million years
  • Carbon burning ~ 300 years
  • Oxygen burning ~ 2/3 year
  • Silicon burning ~ 2 days
  • The iron core's collapse into a temporary neutron star ~ a few milliseconds[5]
  • A temporary neutron star's impansion (introvert expansion) into a zero-temperature black hole ~ after a few weeks or months[6]
Gene Smith's Astronomy Tutorial University of California, San Diego
A complex series of events, whose details are still not completely understood, leads to a rapid collapse, followed by a violent explosion, during which the supernova releases more energy in 1 year—1052 ergs—than it had given off in its entire lifetime as a star.
A Long-range Program in Space Astronomy NASA, July 1969, p. 5
So the entropy of the cloud decreases as it organises itself into a star but the entropy of the surrounding Universe increases as the star radiates the converted energy into space. Increasing the number of photons in the Universe increases the entropy of the Universe.
—Clark, Stuart G. ♦ Life on Other Worlds and How to Find It Springer, 2000, p. 58
Name of process Fuel Products Entropy
of entanglement
in units of
Boltzmann's
constant
, k
(energy of
molecule
divided by its
temperature[7])
Temperature
(K)
Black-hole continuum Gravitational potential energy Hydrogen Extremely high[8] 0
Hydrogen burning Hydrogen Helium 15[9] 1–3 × 107
Helium burning Helium Carbon
Oxygen
2 × 108
Carbon burning Carbon Oxygen
Neon
Sodium
Magnesium
8 × 108
Neon burning Neon Oxygen
Magnesium
1.5 × 109
Oxygen burning Oxygen Magnesium to sulfur 2 × 109
Silicon burning Magnesium to sulfur Elements near iron 3 × 109
Presupernova iron core[10] ≤ 1[9] 5 × 109
Temporary neutron star[11] ≤ 0.5[12] 100 × 109
New black-hole continuum Gravitational potential energy Hydrogen Extremely high[8] 0
Source: Cameron, A. G. V. ♦ Endpoints of Stellar Evolution Frontiers of Astrophysics, Harvard University Press, 1976, p. 127
Then in 1963, Roy Kerr, a New Zealand mathematician, found a solution of Einstein’s equations for a rotating black hole, which had bizarre properties. The black hole would not collapse to a point (as previously thought) but into a spinning ring (of neutrons). The ring would be circulating so rapidly that centrifugal force would keep the ring from collapsing under gravity.
—Kaku, Michio ♦ The Physics of Time Travel
It is interesting to compare the observed rotation periods of the neutron stars with the maximum that they could possess. A rough estimate of this may be made by assuming that the neutron star would break up due to centrifugal forces if its rotational kinetic energy is greater than half its gravitational potential energy, that is, the star no longer satisfies the virial theorem. For a 1MSun neutron star, the break-up rotational period is about 0.5 ms. This is shorter than the observed rotation periods of all pulsars, although pulsars with periods in the range 1–10 ms, the millisecond pulsars, are well known objects, the shortest period being only 1.5 ms, which is within a factor of about three of the break-up rotational period.
—Longair, Malcolm S. ♦ High Energy Astrophysics v. 2, Cambridge University Press, 1994, p. 97

[edit] Gravity and heat

Energy (radiation, heat) is the Planck quantum of action multiplied by frequency (E = hf). Therefore, energy is angular momentum:

The Planck quantum of action, h, has precisely the dimensions of an angular momentum, and, moreover, the Bohr quantization hypothesis specified the unit of (orbital) angular momentum to be ħ = h/2π.
—Biedenharn, L. C.; Louck, J. D. ♦ Angular Momentum in Quantum Physics Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Advanced Book Program, 1981

That is why energy (radiation, heat) is rotationally decohering, centrifugally disgregating. Conversely, gravity (negative energy, energy debt) is translationally cohering, centripetally aggregating:

By help of this conception the effect of heat can be simply expressed by saying that heat tends to increase the disgregation of bodies.
—Clausius, R. ♦ On the Second Fundamental Theorem of the Mechanical Theory of Heat; a Lecture delivered before the Forty-first Meeting of the German Scientific Association, at Frankfurt on the Maine, September 23, 1867 The Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, June 1868, p. 408
Gravity is the inwardly cohering force acting integratively on all systems. Radiation is the outwardly disintegrating force acting divisively upon all systems.
—Fuller, R. Buckminster ♦ Synergetics Macmillan, 1975, §000.113

By spiralling towards the bottom of the continuum's gravitational well, which is the gradient of matter waves' in-phase coherence (constructive interference), matter waves borrow themselves from zero-frequency nonbeing into high-frequency being at the expense of entering a state of negative potential energy:

Photons climbing out of a gravitating object become less energetic. This loss of energy is known as a "redshifting", as photons in the visible spectrum would appear more red. Similarly, photons falling into a gravitational field become more energetic and exhibit a blueshifting. ... Note that the magnitude of the redshifting (blueshifting) effect is not a function of the emitted angle or the received angle of the photon—it depends only on how far radially the photon had to climb out of (fall into) the potential well.
—Nemiroff, R. J. ♦ Gravitational Principles and Mathematics American Journal of Physics, 61, 619 (1993)

The world is borrowed into being. Absence of debt (zero potential energy) is the original sin and nonbeing. Indebtedness (negative potential energy) is righteousness and being:



Resultant wave
Image:Constructive_and_destructive_interference_of_two_waves.png


Matter wave 1
Matter wave 2

Destructive interference:
zero potential energy
(absence of debt),
zero actual energy
(zero-frequency nonbeing),
individual freedom,
multiplicity,
sin
Constructive interference:
negative potential energy
(indebtedness),
positive actual energy
(high-frequency being),
totalitarian bound state,
unity,
righteousness
In the "Alexandrian" explanation described above, the multiple from which evolution emerges is both secondary and sinful from its origin: it represents in fact (an idea that smacks of Manicheanism and the Hindu metaphysical systems) broken and pulverized unity. Starting from a very much more modern and completely different point of view, let us assert, as our original postulate, that, the multiple (that is, non-being, if taken in the pure state) being the only rational form of a creatable (creabile) nothingness, the creative act is comprehensible only as a gradual process of arrangement and unification, which amounts to accepting that to create is to unite. And, indeed, there is nothing to prevent our holding that union creates. To the objection that union presupposes already existing elements, I shall answer that physics has just shown us (in the case of mass) that experientially (and for all the protests of "common sense") the moving object exists only as the product of its motion.
—Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de ♦ Christianity and Evolution Harcourt, 1971, pp. 193–195
Multiplicity is sinful. Therefore, mankind can be redeemed only by collapsing into a single couple of people, who are simultaneously the last Adam and Eve of the current 13.7-billion-year gravitational cycle and the first Adam and Eve of the next 13.7-billion-year gravitational cycle.
Multiplicity is sinful. Therefore, mankind can be redeemed only by collapsing into a single couple of people, who are simultaneously the last Adam and Eve of the current 13.7-billion-year gravitational cycle and the first Adam and Eve of the next 13.7-billion-year gravitational cycle.

Nature (the Devil) is the fragmented (fallen) God, and the world process is religion (from religāre, "to bind back")—the reunion of the numerous fragments of Nature the Devil ("My name is Legion, for we are many") into the cosmic body of Christ the God ("the One") by means of debt:

Christ has a cosmic body that extends throughout the universe.
—Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de ♦ Cosmic Life 1916
Through the incarnation, God descended into Nature in order to super-animate and take it back to him.
—Chardin, Pierre Teilhard de ♦ Mysticism of Science 1939

In other words, the accrual of debt is God's incarnation.

In 1946 AD, the 13.7-billion-year-long accrual of debt becomes overtly exponential: "The interesting complexity of continually borrowing with no intention of ever paying anyone back is a totally modern development post-WWII. This has simply never been done before and governments have no clue what to do. They borrowed previously, but tended to pay back by raising taxes. At least there was some sense of obligation. Today, the national debts are just Ponzi Schemes where they issue new debt to pay off the old." —Armstrong, Martin ♦ The Complexity of War & Debt—a New Factor Entirely 26 April 2014 "Somewhere around 1945 we began to loot the future as a strategy for survival, some ethical norm was shattered." —McKenna, Terence ♦ History Ends in Green 1989 "The duration of the cycle next encountered is 67-plus years, and we have assumed the most recent such epoch to have begun in 1945. ... If our understanding is correct, then the same 67-plus-year cycle at, or near, the end of a 4300-year cycle will terminate around the year 2012." —McKenna, Terence; McKenna, Dennis ♦ The Invisible Landscape ♦ 1975 Matter waves' debt is their bound state (mutual constructive interference, information), which implies that 1946 AD is also the beginning of the age of information—14 February 1946 is the day of the unveiling of the first electronic general-purpose computer (ENIAC), regarded as the birth of the Information Age.

In 1946 AD, the 13.7-billion-year-long accrual of debt becomes overtly exponential:
"The interesting complexity of continually borrowing with no intention of ever paying anyone back is a totally modern development post-WWII. This has simply never been done before and governments have no clue what to do. They borrowed previously, but tended to pay back by raising taxes. At least there was some sense of obligation. Today, the national debts are just Ponzi Schemes where they issue new debt to pay off the old."
—Armstrong, Martin ♦ The Complexity of War & Debt—a New Factor Entirely 26 April 2014
"Somewhere around 1945 we began to loot the future as a strategy for survival, some ethical norm was shattered."
—McKenna, Terence ♦ History Ends in Green 1989
"The duration of the cycle next encountered is 67-plus years, and we have assumed the most recent such epoch to have begun in 1945. ... If our understanding is correct, then the same 67-plus-year cycle at, or near, the end of a 4300-year cycle will terminate around the year 2012."
—McKenna, Terence; McKenna, Dennis ♦ The Invisible Landscape ♦ 1975
Matter waves' debt is their bound state[1] (mutual constructive interference, information), which implies that 1946 AD is also the beginning of the age of information—14 February 1946 is the day of the unveiling of the first electronic general-purpose computer (ENIAC), regarded as the birth of the Information Age.[13][14]

Matter waves' debt is their negative-energy bound state[1] (synergetic constructive interference) and increases proportionally to the square of their proximity (the inverse-square law):

The explanation for this is Newton’s gravitational law which noted the experimentally proven fact that the relative mass attraction of one body for another is proportioned to the second power of the relative proximity of the two bodies as expressed in the relative diameters of the two bodies. If we have two spherical bodies of equal mass at a given distance from each other and insert a third spherical body of the same mass half way between the two we do not double the mass attraction between any two of the three. We increase the attraction by 2 to the second power which is 4. Halving the distance fourfolds the inter-mass attraction. When we bring a galaxy of iron atoms together with the chromium atoms and a galaxy of nickel atoms they all fit neatly between one another and bring about the multifolding of their intercoherency. But there is nothing in one body by itself that says that it will have mass attraction. This can only be discovered by experimenting with two and more bodies. And even then there is no explanation of why there must be mass attraction and why it should increase as the second power of the relative increase of proximity. That is synergy.
R. Buckminster Fuller’s Presentation to U.S. Congressional Sub-Committee on World Game 4 March 1969
Increasing the proximity of components borrows positive-pressure binding energy (synergy, gross domestic product) into actuality, but also intensifies the system's negative-pressure self-gravitation (debt). The system does not implode only so long as it follows Moore's law. The end of the year 2015 AD is the breakeven point between Moore's law and Rock's law. Further die shrinkage becomes economically unfeasible, and the system instantaneously implodes.
Increasing the proximity of components borrows positive-pressure binding energy (synergy, gross domestic product) into actuality, but also intensifies the system's negative-pressure self-gravitation (debt). The system does not implode only so long as it follows Moore's law. The end of the year 2015 AD is the breakeven point between Moore's law and Rock's law. Further die shrinkage becomes economically unfeasible, and the system instantaneously implodes.
Gravity is the inwardly cohering force acting integratively on all systems.
—Fuller, R. Buckminster ♦ Synergetics Macmillan, 1975, §000.113

Therefore, gravity (debt) creates integrated circuits:

The primordial zero-temperature mist of infinitely redshifted protons (bags of angular momentum) undergoes a 13.7-billion-year-long gravitational integration into a high-temperature world tree of blueshifted neutrons/neurons, which are protons interconnected by wormholes (channels of constructive interference, quantum entanglement) of debt—electrons:

According to [11-15], electron represents a soliton—a clot of electrically charged matter having the physical properties of absolutely solid body (because of the violation of superposition principle). It is a complicated dynamical system consisting of a region of basic localization, with the sizes being of the order of Bohr radius for the ground state of particle, of a tail, extending up to infinity, and of the own field. The presence of the tail manifests itself in that the charge density of the self-acting electron proves to be distinct from zero (though rather small in magnitude) far outside the region of basic localization of particle. The oscillations of the charge density, occurring in this region, are instantaneously transferred along the tail via the own field of particle to any distances and excite the oscillations of electric and magnetic fields at each point of space. This process ensures that information about a physical event occurring at some point of space can be gained immediately from a measurement conducted at any place of the universe. It should be noted that the effect is absent for a point-like particle. ...
The ability of electron for self-organization and for information interchange with the surrounding bodies, no matter how far they are spaced, point to the fact that electron is an elementary microsystem possessing the rudiments of reason and all those properties which as a result of the evolution of matter lead to the beginnings of life.
—Oleinik, V. P. ♦ The Newest Development of Quantum Electrodynamics: Electron as an Open Self-organizing System, Superluminal Signals, Dynamical Properties of Time 2001
Image:Spaghettification.gif

Since debt is gravity, any banknote is a gravitational bond:

banknote : a promissory note issued by a central bank, serving as money
banknote The Collins English Dictionary

So, by increasing the number of banknotes, humanity intensifies its negative-pressure gravity (debt), but also borrows into actuality positive-pressure binding energy (gross domestic product, GDP). While the production of positive-pressure binding energy exceeds the intensification of negative-pressure debt, the global economy grows but becomes increasingly fragile,[15] and undergoes an instantaneous collapse at the breakeven point between the negative-pressure debt and the positive-pressure GDP.

Graph: Lounsbury, John ♦ Jim Welsh on the Economy: Past the Point of No Return 6 May 2009 As a system becomes more gravitationally bound by means of banknotes, the system's temperature rises, which intensifies the radiative loss of the actualized heat. At the same time, the returns of positive-pressure binding energy on new debt become lower. Eventually, the system reaches the point of no return. Until the year 2015 AD, the binding energy (heat), borrowed from zero-temperature potentiality into high-temperature actuality by deepening the negative-pressure debt, is greater than its radiative loss, so that the growth rate of the gross domestic product (GDP) stays positive and the supergiant of humanity does not collapse into a "temporary neutron star"—a single couple of superhumans.
Graph: Lounsbury, John ♦ Jim Welsh on the Economy: Past the Point of No Return 6 May 2009
As a system becomes more gravitationally bound by means of banknotes, the system's temperature rises, which intensifies the radiative loss of the actualized heat. At the same time, the returns of positive-pressure binding energy on new debt become lower. Eventually, the system reaches the point of no return. Until the year 2015 AD, the binding energy (heat), borrowed from zero-temperature potentiality into high-temperature actuality by deepening the negative-pressure debt, is greater than its radiative loss, so that the growth rate of the gross domestic product (GDP) stays positive and the supergiant of humanity does not collapse into a "temporary neutron star"—a single couple of superhumans.
Because iron is the most tightly bound nucleus (the "break-even point" between fusion and fission), the star is no longer able to produce energy in the core via further nuclear burning stages. Nuclear reactions will continue, however, because of the extremely high temperatures in the massive star's core. These further reactions have a devastating effect on the star, because they take energy out of the core. At such high temperatures and densities, the gamma-ray photons present in the core have sufficient energy to destroy the heavy nuclei produced in the many stages of nuclear reactions, e.g.:
γ + 56Fe134He + 4n
This process, called photodisintegration, undoes the work of a stellar lifetime in the core and removes the thermal energy necessary to provide pressure support. The result is a catastrophic collapse of the core, which cannot be halted until the core has shrunk to a size of about 10 km and a density of the order of 200 million tons/cm3. Under such extreme conditions, electron degeneracy cannot support the stellar core, and the free electrons are forced together with protons to form neutrons.
Gene Smith's Astronomy Tutorial University of California, San Diego
But with the iron-peak nuclides the cycle ends. These nuclei, which include iron, copper, nickel, and cobalt, are very stable and therefore cannot be fused into yet heavier elements without absorbing more energy than they release. When this begins, the supergiant's core rapidly contracts, dramatically increasing in density and temperature. At a core temperature of 5 billion °K, the atomic nuclei first absorb huge quantities of free electrons, and then are shattered into alpha-particles (helium nuclei) by high-energy photons. This process absorbs so much of the core's energy so quickly that its pressure drops essentially to zero and it violently implodes.
This internal catastrophe is announced by an out-rush of neutrinos which, because the upper layers of the star are transparent to them, carries away most of the implosion's energy. (This preliminary neutrino outflow was actually observed from the 1987 supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud.) The rest of the energy blasts the star's outer layers off in a supernova. The kinetic energy in the expanding supernova debris cloud is something like 2 × 1051 ergs. Because the energy production rate of the Sun is about 3.8 × 1033 ergs/second and there are 3.2 × 107 seconds/year, the amount of time necessary for the Sun to radiate as much energy as is blown away in a supernova debris cloud is 15 billion years. But the Sun's entire main sequence lifetime is less than 10 billion years! (And this calculation is based only upon the amount of energy contained in the supernova's debris cloud: it does not include the energy carried out by the initial neutrino blast, which is probably 100 times greater.)
—Crossen, Craig; Rhemann, Gerald ♦ Sky Vistas: Astronomy for Binoculars and Richest-Field Telescopes Springer, 2012, pp. 13–14

[edit] Jubilee

Shortly after the beginning of the 46th yovel, the Balfour Declaration was ratified. Dated November 2, 1917 (17th Marcheshvan 5678), the Balfour Declaration is one of the biggest steps towards gaining international recognition for the return to Eretz Israel.
—Killian, Greg ♦ Yovel (Jubilee) Years
... since the commandment to return and to build Jerusalem, precedes the Messiah the Prince forty-nine years; it may perhaps come forth not from the Jews themselves, but from some other kingdom friendly to them, and precede their return from captivity, and give occasion to it ..."
Isaaci Newtoni opera quae exstant omnia v. 5, Joannes Nichols, 1785, p. 376

Therefore, according to Newton, the Messiah becomes born 49 years after the Balfour Declaration—on 2 November 1966 AD. By parity of reasoning, the Messiah acquires psychokinetic powers, by Mystical Marriage, 49 years after his birth—on 2 November 2015 AD.

The Messiah is Adam and is born in a year of the Fire Horse (1966 AD). Fire represents the transition from the nonconductive Wood to the conductive Metal:

A candle flame conducts electric current.
Flame Conducts Electricity Popular Science, May 1939, p. 198

Therefore, Eve must be born in a year of the Metal Horse, on 2 November 1990 AD. With Eve's birth, the world becomes conductive—the World Wide Web is formally proposed on 12 November 1990 AD. The WWW represents Eve's nervous system. On the one hand, the WWW is a network of negative-pressure gravitoelectrical wormholes of debt. On the other hand, the growth of the WWW releases positive-pressure binding energy—the gross domestic product. Until 2 November 2015 AD, the marginal productivity of new debt is positive, so that Eve's main wormhole deepens but stays virginal (positive binding energy is rotationally decohering and makes Eve's main wormhole intraversable).

Our limaçon-shaped black-hole continuum is being sucked into its own gravitational well, which develops from a barely noticeable concavity into a deep funnel-shaped wormhole—the central electron—chasing our continuum's central proton (which is an identical smaller-scale continuum). For 13.7 billion years, the central electron enhances his penetrative ability by becoming incorporated into more complexly organized male structures. The central proton protects herself from penetration by becoming incorporated into more complexly organized female structures. On 2 November 1966 AD, the central electron becomes incorporated into the ultimate male structure—Adam. On 2 November 1990 AD, the central proton becomes incorporated into the ultimate female structure—Eve. 2 November 2015 AD is the day of Adam and Eve's Mystical Marriage.
Our limaçon-shaped black-hole continuum[16] is being sucked into its own gravitational well, which develops from a barely noticeable concavity into a deep funnel-shaped wormhole[3]—the central electron—chasing our continuum's central proton (which is an identical smaller-scale continuum). For 13.7 billion years, the central electron enhances his penetrative ability by becoming incorporated into more complexly organized male structures. The central proton protects herself from penetration by becoming incorporated into more complexly organized female structures.
On 2 November 1966 AD, the central electron becomes incorporated into the ultimate male structure—Adam.
On 2 November 1990 AD, the central proton becomes incorporated into the ultimate female structure—Eve.
2 November 2015 AD is the day of Adam and Eve's Mystical Marriage.

According to Avogadro's law, all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules per unit volume. At the same temperature and pressure, 1000 atoms of helium or iron occupy the same volume as 1000 atoms of hydrogen. That is why when a cloud of hydrogen nuclei reaches a critical pressure and fuses into a smaller number of more complex helium nuclei, the pressure in the resultant helium cloud immediately after the fusion is lower than the pressure in the hydrogen cloud immediately before the fusion. Analogously, the pressure in a neutron star immediately after the electron capture is lower than the pressure in the iron core immediately before the electron capture. Therefore, the neutron star into which humanity collapses is initially rarefied in comparison with the preceding iron core.

Era Element Pressure
Air (impansion (inward expansion)) Decreases
Water (rarefied state) On a low plateau
Fire (compression) Increases
Earth (compressed state) On a high plateau

From the above table, it follows that humanity enters the era of in 2015 AD. The electrons and protons of humanity's "iron core" marry into a rarefied "neutron star" (a single couple of superhumans) during the solar month of 2015 AD.

Any jubilee year begins on the tenth day of the seventh month:

You are also to count off seven sabbaths of years for yourself, seven times seven years, so that you have the time of the seven sabbaths of years, namely, forty-nine years. You shall then sound a ram’s horn abroad on the tenth day of the seventh month; on the day of atonement you shall sound a horn all through your land. You shall thus consecrate the fiftieth year and proclaim a release through the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be a jubilee for you, and each of you shall return to his own property, and each of you shall return to his family. You shall have the fiftieth year as a jubilee; you shall not sow, nor reap its aftergrowth, nor gather in from its untrimmed vines. For it is a jubilee; it shall be holy to you. You shall eat its crops out of the field.
Leviticus 25 New American Standard Bible

Counting from , the seventh solar month is . The Sun enters on 23 September 2015 AD, at 8:22 GMT. The tenth day of the solar month is 3 October 2015 AD. Analogously, the effective beginning of the solar month is its tenth day—2 November 2015 AD.

Therefore, humanity condenses into a single couple of superhumans—Hades and Persephone—from 3 October to 2 November 2015 AD, which is All Souls' day. All souls will be condensed into a single couple of chosen humans and thus liberated from a 13.7-billion-year-long anergy, during which psychokinesis is impossible, into the final exergic (synergetic) state allowing of psychokinesis (synergy is the ability to attain big goals with small means, so the ultimate synergy is psychokinetic omnipotence—the ability to attain anything just by wishing it).

[edit] Omen

An astrological year begins at the moment of the vernal equinox, when the Sun enters the sign of Aries. The planetary positions at the beginning of a year determine the character of the entire year. The astrological year of 2015 AD begins at 22:46 GMT of 20 March 2015 AD. 13 hours earlier, at 09:46:46 GMT of 20 March 2015 AD, there is a total solar eclipse—a symbol of the Mystical Marriage and of the end of the world. A total solar eclipse, preceding the beginning of an astrological year by less than 48 hours, has not happened since at least 1943 AD.

[edit] Back to the Future

I've thought of many, many ways of expressing this that would make it less catastrophically radical. A very simple way that makes everybody feel a little better is to suppose that what happens on December 21, 2012, is that physicists who've been laboring for some time toward the technology of time travel, actually succeed. Suddenly the timewave is fulfilled, and yet the heavens do not fall, and angels don't appear to lift us into paradise. The reason history ends at that date is because after the invention of time travel the notion of a seriality of events ceases to have any meaning. Everybody agrees history ended yesterday. We then experience life in a posthistorical atemporal bubble where you not only tell where you live, but when you live.
—McKenna, Terence ♦ The Evolutionary Mind 1998
Marty: All right, Doc. What's going on, huh? Where are we? When are we?
Dr. Brown: We're descending toward Hill Valley, California, at 4:29 p.m. On Wednesday, October 21, 2015.
Marty: 2015? You mean we're in the future.
Back to the Future 2 1989

[edit] References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Why is the Potential Energy Negative? HyperPhysics
  2. Guth, AlanThe Inflationary Universe Beam Line, fall 1997, p. 18 ♦ "Mechanically such a negative pressure corresponds to a suction, which does not sound like something that would drive the Universe into a period of rapid expansion."
  3. 3.0 3.1 Battersby, Stephen ♦ Big Bang glow hints at funnel-shaped Universe New Scientist, 15 April 2004
  4. Chown, Marcus ♦ Is Earth at the heart of a giant cosmic void? New Scientist, 12 November 2008
  5. Bethe, Hans A.; Brown, Gerald ♦ How a Supernova Explodes ♦ Scientific American, May 1985 ♦ "The collapse takes only milliseconds ..."
  6. Mészáros , Peter ♦ Gamma-ray bursts: the supernova connection Nature, 19 June 2003, pp. 809–810 ♦ "There is also a more elaborate offshoot of the supernova idea—the 'supranova'. Here, the core collapse is assumed to be a two-step affair: the first step produces a temporary neutron star and a supernova; in the second step, a few weeks or months later, the neutron star collapses into a black hole, producing a GRB."
  7. Cleveland, Cutler J.; Morris, Christopher G. ♦ Dictionary of Energy Elsewier, 2014, p. 66 ♦ "Boltzmann's constant: a value (k) relating the average energy of a molecule to its absolute temperature; k = 1.3803 × 1023 Joules per molecules degree Kelvin."
  8. 8.0 8.1 Shiga, David ♦ 'Monsters' blamed for extreme chaos in black holes New Scientist, 18 January 2008
  9. 9.0 9.1 Bethe, Hans A.; Brown, Gerald ♦ How a Supernova Explodes ♦ Scientific American, May 1985 ♦ "The entire evolution of the star is toward a condition of greater order, or lower entropy. It is easy to see why. In a hydrogen star, each nucleon can move willy-nilly along its own trajectory, but in an iron core groups of 56 nucleons are bound together and must move in lockstep. Initially the entropy per nucleon, expressed in units of Boltzmann's constant, is about 15; in the presupernova core it is less than 1."
  10. Crossen, Craig; Rhemann, Gerald ♦ Sky Vistas: Astronomy for Binoculars and Richest-Field Telescopes Springer, 2012, pp. 13–14 ♦ "At a core temperature of 5 billion °K, the atomic nuclei first absorb huge quantities of free electrons, and then are shattered into alpha-particles (helium nuclei) by high-energy photons."
  11. Bethe, Hans A.; Brown, Gerald ♦ How a Supernova Explodes ♦ Scientific American, May 1985 ♦ "Even if the compact remnant ultimately degenerates into a black hole, it begins as a hot neutron star. The central temperature immediately after the explosion is roughly 100 billion degrees Kelvin, which generates enough thermal pressure to support the star even if it is larger than 1.8 solar masses."
  12. Meyer, Bradley S. ♦ The r-, s-, and p-processes in nucleosynthesis "If the neutron star is more than a few hours old, it is cold (T ≤ 109 K) on a nuclear energy scale (e.g. Baym & Pethick 1979), implying that the entropy per baryon is quite low (≤ 0.5k)."
  13. ENIAC: The Birth of the Information Age Popular Science, March 1996
  14. The ENIAC Effect: Dawn of the Information Age ENIAC Museum
  15. As a system loses angular momentum (heat), it becomes more fragile. Angular momentum is rotationally centrifugal and provides buoyancy against the centripetal force of gravity. In a young system, low-frequency angular momentum (low-temperature heat) is stored in multiple "buoyancy bags", which are isolated from each other. In a mature (interindebted) system, high-frequency angular momentum (high-temperature heat) is generally much more scarce and is synergetically shared between interconnected "buoyancy bags", so that the system effectively has just a single "buoyancy bag". A ship with a single "buoyancy bag" will lose its buoyancy instantaneously, not gradually.
  16. Vries, Andreas de ♦ Shadows of rotating black holes approximated by Dürer-Pascal limaçons in Muno, R. (ed.) ♦ Jahresschrift der Bochumer Interdisziplinären Gesellschaft eV 2003, ibidem-Verlag, 2005

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