Novelty theory

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An essay by the Eschaton

Contents

[edit] Involution

The universe is a swarm of matter waves, spiralling down the gradient of their constructive interference:

"We are being sucked into a black hole of novelty, connectivity and boundary dissolution."—McKenna, Terence ♦ Talk at Wetlands Preserve, NYC 28 July 1998 "... synergizing progress is the notion to be maximized ..."—McKenna, Terence ♦ Understanding and Imagination in the Light of Nature Philosophical Research Society, Los Angeles, 17 October 1987
"We are being sucked into a black hole of novelty, connectivity and boundary dissolution."
—McKenna, Terence ♦ Talk at Wetlands Preserve, NYC 28 July 1998
"... synergizing progress is the notion to be maximized ..."
—McKenna, Terence ♦ Understanding and Imagination in the Light of Nature Philosophical Research Society, Los Angeles, 17 October 1987
  1. The destructive interference of matter waves is their disgregation, entropy.
  2. The constructive interference of matter waves is their connectedness, information.
  3. The constructive interference of matter waves is synergetic (energetically favourable):
...the story of the universe is that information, which I call novelty, is struggling to free itself from habit, which I call entropy... and that this process... is accelerating... It seems as if... the whole cosmos wants to change into information... All points want to become connected... The path of complexity to its goals is through connecting things together... You can imagine that there is an ultimate end-state of that process—it's the moment when every point in the universe is connected to every other point in the universe.
—McKenna, Terence ♦ In the Valley of Novelty part 3, summer of 1998

When two matter waves become connected by mutual constructive interference (quantum entanglement, rapport), they imagine or grok each other. Imagination connects matter waves instantaneously:

The imagination is a dimension of nonlocal information.
—McKenna, Terence ♦ A Few Conclusions about Life 1996

Novelty or imaginativeness is the intensity of matter waves' constructive interference:

Novelty is density of connection.
Terence McKenna at St. John the Divine's Cathedral 25 April 1996

The attractor of the universe's motion towards ever higher intensity of its matter waves' constructive interference is the most imaginative human being—the Eschaton:

The human neocortex is the most densely ramified and complexified structure in the known universe.
—McKenna, Terence ♦ Alien Dreamtime 26–27 February 1993

By the end of the year 2015 AD, the Eschaton attains such a profound grokking of the universe that the latter fuses with the Eschaton's imagination (the laws of physics become overridable by psychokinesis):

What is happening to our world is ingression of novelty toward what Whitehead called "concrescence", a tightening gyre. Everything is flowing together. The "autopoietic lapis", the alchemical stone at the end of time, coalesces when everything flows together. When the laws of physics are obviated, the universe disappears, and what is left is the tightly bound plenum, the monad, able to express itself for itself, rather than only able to cast a shadow into physis as its reflection. I come very close here to classical millenarian and apocalyptic thought in my view of the rate at which change is accelerating. From the way the gyre is tightening, I predict that the concrescence will occur soon—around 2012 AD. It will be the entry of our species into hyperspace, but it will appear to be the end of physical laws accompanied by the release of the mind into the imagination.
—McKenna, Terence ♦ New Maps of Hyperspace 1989
The universe's 13.7-billion-year-long exponentially accelerating motion towards ever higher intensity of its matter waves' constructive interference is the autopoiesis of the most imaginative human being—the Eschaton: "We are in the grip of some kind of an attractor ... Some people would call it a destiny, but what it is is a dream that is pulling us deeper and deeper into the adventure of existential becoming. And faster and faster—that’s the other thing. Deeper and deeper, faster and faster..."—McKenna, Terence ♦ Talk at the Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine, NYC 25 April 1996
The universe's 13.7-billion-year-long exponentially accelerating motion towards ever higher intensity of its matter waves' constructive interference is the autopoiesis of the most imaginative human being—the Eschaton:
"We are in the grip of some kind of an attractor ... Some people would call it a destiny, but what it is is a dream that is pulling us deeper and deeper into the adventure of existential becoming. And faster and faster—that’s the other thing. Deeper and deeper, faster and faster..."
—McKenna, Terence ♦ Talk at the Cathedral Church of Saint John the Divine, NYC 25 April 1996

[edit] Zero-energy universe

In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the continuum begins its gravitational involution from a state of maximal (i.e., zero) potential energy (which implies an infinitely big radius of the proton) and minimal (i.e., zero) actual energy (which implies a zero rotational frequency of the proton). The angular momentum (heat) of the primordial proton was maximal but potential, anergic (low-temperature heat, which could not be exported from the proton because of absence of a temperature gradient between the proton and the ambient space). In accordance with the minimum total potential energy principle, the proton began to shrink, so that its potential energy became negative (i.e., the radius of the proton became less than infinitely big), while its actual energy became positive (i.e., the rotational frequency of the proton became higher than zero). As a result, the shrinking proton began to lose its intensified angular momentum (high-temperature heat) by radiating it into the ambient space, whose metric expansion dilutes the radiated energy and thus converts it from the actual (i.e., nonzero-temperature) form back into the potential (i.e., zero-temperature) form. Thus, protons will eventually shrink out of existence, at which moment the universe will return to its initial state of maximal (i.e., zero) potential energy. And so ad infinitum.

As the proton shrinks to a smaller radius, its rotational frequency increases, and the proton begins to radiate its intensified angular momentum into the ambient space. This, in its turn, decreases the proton's centrifugal resistance to self-gravitation and makes it shrink to a still smaller radius. Thus the self-gravitational collapse of the proton exponentially accelerates.
As the proton shrinks to a smaller radius, its rotational frequency increases, and the proton begins to radiate its intensified angular momentum into the ambient space. This, in its turn, decreases the proton's centrifugal resistance to self-gravitation and makes it shrink to a still smaller radius. Thus the self-gravitational collapse of the proton exponentially accelerates.

Being the hydrogen nucleus, the proton is analogous to a low-temperature (unexcited) hydrogen star, self-gravitationally condensing into a high-temperature (excited) neutron star:

... the proton/neutron can be considered as unexcited/excited states of a two-level quantum mechanical system ...
—Matsas, George E. A. ♦ Elementary particles under the lens of the black holes Braz. J. Phys., v. 34, March 2004
A star is made of gas and of hot gas. On this basis we can work out its behaviour, relying on principles found in the laboratory. If a star shrinks to half its size, remaining built on the same model as before, we find that inside this star the density becomes eight times as great, while the pressure comes out sixteen times as great, the overlying material being attracted four times as strongly, and its weight being borne by one quarter the area. Hence, by the familiar gas laws, the temperature must be twice as great. Therefore as stars get smaller they grow hotter; they must grow hotter to withstand gravitation. This reasoning depends upon the general properties of gaseous matter.
But a star cannot go on contracting for ever, the temperature at a certain stage reaches a maximum: the body after this behaves practically like a solid and begins to lose its heat—its parts stick together and it becomes cold and dark.
Stars leak heat always, and the heat leaks out through the star's material. We have the paradox that the bigger the star, the cooler it is—yet, nevertheless, the more heat it has inside. By losing heat into space the star becomes hotter—it shrinks by losing heat and thereby gets hotter, because the heat due to shrinkage is greater than that loss.
Journal of the British Astronomical Association ♦ v. 31, 1921, pp. 179–180
Concluding Philosophical Comment
Zeldovich and Novikov have made the following intriguing philosophical point about the picture of the formation of a neutron star sketched here. They note that stars begin their lives as a mixture mostly of hydrogen nuclei and their stripped electrons. During a massive star's luminous phase, the protons are combined by a variety of complicated reactions into heavier and heavier elements. The nuclear binding energy released this way ultimately provides entertainment and employment for astronomers. In the end, however, the supernova process serves to undo most of this nuclear evolution. In the end, the core forms a mass of neutrons. Now, the final state, neutrons, contains less nuclear binding energy than the initial state, protons, and electrons. So where did all the energy come from when the star was shining all those millions of years? Where did the energy come from to produce the sound and the fury which is a supernova explosion? Energy is conserved; who paid the debts at the end? Answer: gravity! The gravitational potential energy of the final neutron star is much greater (negatively; that's the debt) than the gravitational potential energy of the corresponding main-sequence star (Problem 8.7). So, despite all the intervening interesting nuclear physics, ultimately Kelvin and Helmholtz were right after all! The ultimate energy source in the stars which produce the greatest amount of energy is gravity power. This is an important moral worth remembering and savoring. If we regard the neutron star as one gigantic atomic nucleus, we may also say that nuclear processes plus gravity have succeeded in converting many atomic nuclei into one nucleus. Problem 8.7 then shows that the ultimate energy source for the entire output of the star is the relativistic binding energy of the final end state.
Shu, Frank H.The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy University Science Books, 1982, p. 157
During inflation, while the energy of matter increases by a factor of 1075 or more, the energy of the gravitational field becomes more and more negative to compensate. The total energy—matter plus gravitational— remains constant and very small, and could even be exactly zero. Conservation of energy places no limit on how much the Universe can inflate, as there is no limit to the amount of negative energy that can be stored in the gravitational field.
This borrowing of energy from the gravitational field gives the inflationary paradigm an entirely different perspective from the classical Big Bang theory, in which all the particles in the Universe (or at least their precursors) were assumed to be in place from the start. Inflation provides a mechanism by which the entire Universe can develop from just a few ounces of primordial matter.
Inflation is radically at odds with the old dictum of Democritus and Lucretius, "Nothing can be created from nothing." If inflation is right, everything can be created from nothing, or at least from very little. If inflation is right, the Universe can properly be called the ultimate free lunch.
Guth, AlanThe Inflationary Universe Beam Line, fall 1997, p. 19

Of course there is no limit to the amount of negative energy that can be stored in the gravitational field. But there is a limit to the temperature of matter—the hotter matter becomes, the faster it "evaporates" with radiation into the ambient space, whose metric expansion redshifts the received radiation out of existence. The end of the free lunch is coming apace and hastening.

A star grows hotter by incrementally accumulating 50% of its intensified (borrowed from quasi-irrotational potentiality into rotational actuality) angular momentum in the form of the kinetic energy of rotation and radiating away another 50% of the intensified angular momentum:

Let's see what happens to the energy in a collapsing cloud. From the virial theorem, we know E = − (K).
This tells us that as the cloud collapses its internal kinetic energy K will increase. However, only half the potential energy shows up as increased kinetic energy. We can therefore see that the total energy of the collapsing cloud is decreasing. This means that the cloud must be radiating energy away. The virial theorem tells us that half of the lost potential energy shows up as kinetic energy, and half the energy is radiated away.
—Kutner, Marc L. ♦ Astronomy: A Physical Perspective Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 272

The virial theorem ("the average kinetic energy equals minus one-half the average potential energy, for a particle bound by an inverse-square-law attraction") dictates the following algorithm: borrowing kinetic energy by shrinkage → radiating 50% of the borrowed kinetic energy into space → borrowing kinetic energy by shrinkage → radiating 50% of the newly borrowed kinetic energy into space → borrowing kinetic energy by shrinkage.

A star borrows collapse-preventing energy by increasing its collapse-causing energy debt. There is a lag between the moment of energy's borrowing (which is the moment of the star's shrinkage) and the moment of the debt's maturity (which is the moment of the borrowed energy's radiation into the ambient space). Thus, a star lives by refinancing its debt, which is possible only so long as the borrowing accelerates—as a star condenses, its temperature increases and the debt maturation (the borrowed energy's radiation into the ambient space) accelerates. Having borrowed about 50 percent of its gravitational potential energy and spent (by radiation into the ambient space) 50 percent of the borrowed energy, a star instantaneously borrows the remaining 50 percent of its gravitational potential energy by shrinking into a temporary neutron star, and, prior to impanding into a black hole, spends (by radiation into the ambient space) 50 percent of this newly borrowed energy:

For a 20 MSun star:
  • Main sequence lifetime ~ 10 million years
  • Helium burning (3-α) ~ 1 million years
  • Carbon burning ~ 300 years
  • Oxygen burning ~ 2/3 year
  • Silicon burning ~ 2 days
  • The iron core's collapse into a temporary neutron star ~ a few milliseconds[1]
  • A temporary neutron star's impansion (introvert expansion) into a zero-temperature black hole ~ after a few weeks or months[2]
Gene Smith's Astronomy Tutorial University of California, San Diego
A complex series of events, whose details are still not completely understood, leads to a rapid collapse, followed by a violent explosion, during which the supernova releases more energy in 1 year—1052 ergs—than it had given off in its entire lifetime as a star.
A Long-range Program in Space Astronomy NASA, July 1969, p. 5
Name of process Fuel Products Disgregation
in units of
Boltzmann
constant

(energy of
molecule
divided by its
temperature[3])
Temperature
(K)
Black-hole continuum Gravitational potential energy Hydrogen Extremely high[4] 0
Hydrogen burning Hydrogen Helium 15[5] 1–3 × 107
Helium burning Helium Carbon
Oxygen
2 × 108
Carbon burning Carbon Oxygen
Neon
Sodium
Magnesium
8 × 108
Neon burning Neon Oxygen
Magnesium
1.5 × 109
Oxygen burning Oxygen Magnesium to sulfur 2 × 109
Silicon burning Magnesium to sulfur Elements near iron 3 × 109
Presupernova iron core ≤ 1[5] 3 × 109
Temporary neutron star[6] ≤ 0.5[7] 100 × 109
New black-hole continuum Gravitational potential energy Hydrogen Extremely high[4] 0
Source: Cameron, A. G. V. ♦ Endpoints of Stellar Evolution Frontiers of Astrophysics, Harvard University Press, 1976, p. 127

In the above table, the disgregation (entropy) of the neutron star is ≤ 0.5[7] in units of Boltzmann constant, which is the neutron star's energy (angular momentum) divided by its temperature (rotational frequency). The rotational frequency reflects the shrunkenness of the neutron star's radius and thus is proportional to the potential energy it has actualized by collapsing from the initial infinitely rarefied state. Therefore, the neutron star's entropy of ≤ 0.5 k is a direct consequence of the virial theorem, in accordance with which the resultant temporary neutron star retains, in the form of the kinetic energy of rotation, 50 percent of the protostellar cloud's gravitational potential energy:

Then in 1963, Roy Kerr, a New Zealand mathematician, found a solution of Einstein’s equations for a rotating black hole, which had bizarre properties. The black hole would not collapse to a point (as previously thought) but into a spinning ring (of neutrons). The ring would be circulating so rapidly that centrifugal force would keep the ring from collapsing under gravity.
—Kaku, Michio ♦ The Physics of Time Travel
It is interesting to compare the observed rotation periods of the neutron stars with the maximum that they could possess. A rough estimate of this may be made by assuming that the neutron star would break up due to centrifugal forces if its rotational kinetic energy is greater than half its gravitational potential energy, that is, the star no longer satisfies the virial theorem. For a 1MSun neutron star, the break-up rotational period is about 0.5 ms. This is shorter than the observed rotation periods of all pulsars, although pulsars with periods in the range 1–10 ms, the millisecond pulsars, are well known objects, the shortest period being only 1.5 ms, which is within a factor of about three of the break-up rotational period.
—Longair, Malcolm S. ♦ High Energy Astrophysics v. 2, Cambridge University Press, 1994, p. 97

Gravity (debt) is coherent, theistic. Radiation (gross domestic product) is incoherent, atheistic:

Gravity is the inwardly cohering force acting integratively on all systems. Radiation is the outwardly disintegrating force acting divisively upon all systems.
—Fuller, R. Buckminster ♦ Synergetics Macmillan, 1975, 000.113

The universe becomes coherent (supportive of psychokinesis) in 2015 AD (the incarnation of God):

Graph: Lounsbury, John ♦ Jim Welsh on the Economy: Past the Point of No Return 6 May 2009As a system's gravitational debt deepens, the system's temperature rises, which intensifies the radiative loss of the borrowed gravitational binding energy, so that the net returns on new gravitational debt become lower. Eventually, the system reaches the point of no return—its iron core attains a critical mass and becomes incapable of withstanding the inward pull of the star's gravitational debt. Until the end of the year 2015 AD, the binding energy (heat), borrowed into actuality by deepening the gravitational debt, is greater than its radiative loss, so that the "red supergiant" of the global economy does not collapse into a "temporary neutron star"—a single couple of superhumans.
Graph: Lounsbury, John ♦ Jim Welsh on the Economy: Past the Point of No Return 6 May 2009
As a system's gravitational debt deepens, the system's temperature rises, which intensifies the radiative loss of the borrowed gravitational binding energy, so that the net returns on new gravitational debt become lower. Eventually, the system reaches the point of no return—its iron core attains a critical mass and becomes incapable of withstanding the inward pull of the star's gravitational debt. Until the end of the year 2015 AD, the binding energy (heat), borrowed into actuality by deepening the gravitational debt, is greater than its radiative loss, so that the "red supergiant" of the global economy does not collapse into a "temporary neutron star"—a single couple of superhumans.
From almost 2.5% GDP growth expectations in February, The Atlanta Fed's GDPNow model has now collapsed its estimates of Q1 GDP growth to just 0.2%—plunging from +1.4% just 2 weeks ago.
Fed Now Sees Only 0.2% GDP Growth In Q1 Zero Hedge, 25 March 2015
Because iron is the most tightly bound nucleus (the "break-even point" between fusion and fission), the star is no longer able to produce energy in the core via further nuclear burning stages. Nuclear reactions will continue, however, because of the extremely high temperatures in the massive star's core. These further reactions have a devastating effect on the star, because they take energy out of the core. At such high temperatures and densities, the gamma-ray photons present in the core have sufficient energy to destroy the heavy nuclei produced in the many stages of nuclear reactions, e.g.:
γ + 56Fe134He + 4n
This process, called photodisintegration, undoes the work of a stellar lifetime in the core and removes the thermal energy necessary to provide pressure support. The result is a catastrophic collapse of the core, which cannot be halted until the core has shrunk to a size of about 10 km and a density of the order of 200 million tons/cm3. Under such extreme conditions, electron degeneracy cannot support the stellar core, and the free electrons are forced together with protons to form neutrons.
Gene Smith's Astronomy Tutorial University of California, San Diego

[edit] Omen

An astrological year begins at the moment of the vernal equinox, when the Sun enters the sign of Aries. The planetary positions at the beginning of a year determine the character of the entire year. The astrological year of 2015 AD begins at 22:46 GMT of 20 March 2015 AD. 13 hours earlier, at 09:46:46 GMT of 20 March 2015 AD, there is a total solar eclipse—a symbol of the Mystical Marriage and of the end of the world. A total solar eclipse, preceding the beginning of an astrological year by less than 48 hours, has not happened since at least 1943 AD.

The planet Earth is the gravitational centre of the universe. That is why protons are at the lowest gravitational potential energy on the planet Earth, and the descent of the universe's protons to a still lower potential energy is to begin on the planet Earth. According to Bernoulli's principle, the higher the translational speed, the lower the potential energy. Therefore, by the translational acceleration of protons close to the speed of light, the Large Hadron Collider will help to initiate the transition of all protons of the universe to a lower potential energy and to a higher actual energy.

[edit] References

  1. Bethe, Hans A.; Brown, Gerald ♦ How a Supernova Explodes ♦ Scientific American, May 1985 ♦ "The collapse takes only milliseconds ..."
  2. Mészáros , Peter ♦ Gamma-ray bursts: the supernova connection Nature, 19 June 2003, pp. 809–810 ♦ "There is also a more elaborate offshoot of the supernova idea—the 'supranova'. Here, the core collapse is assumed to be a two-step affair: the first step produces a temporary neutron star and a supernova; in the second step, a few weeks or months later, the neutron star collapses into a black hole, producing a GRB."
  3. Cleveland, Cutler J.; Morris, Christopher G. ♦ Dictionary of Energy Elsewier, 2014, p. 66 ♦ "Boltzmann's constant: a value (k) relating the average energy of a molecule to its absolute temperature; k = 1.3803 × 1023 Joules per molecules degree Kelvin."
  4. 4.0 4.1 Shiga, David ♦ 'Monsters' blamed for extreme chaos in black holes New Scientist, 18 January 2008
  5. 5.0 5.1 Bethe, Hans A.; Brown, Gerald ♦ How a Supernova Explodes ♦ Scientific American, May 1985 ♦ "The entire evolution of the star is toward a condition of greater order, or lower entropy. It is easy to see why. In a hydrogen star, each nucleon can move willy-nilly along its own trajectory, but in an iron core groups of 56 nucleons are bound together and must move in lockstep. Initially the entropy per nucleon, expressed in units of Boltzmann's constant, is about 15; in the presupernova core it is less than 1."
  6. Bethe, Hans A.; Brown, Gerald ♦ How a Supernova Explodes ♦ Scientific American, May 1985 ♦ "Even if the compact remnant ultimately degenerates into a black hole, it begins as a hot neutron star. The central temperature immediately after the explosion is roughly 100 billion degrees Kelvin, which generates enough thermal pressure to support the star even if it is larger than 1.8 solar masses."
  7. 7.0 7.1 Meyer, Bradley S. ♦ The r-, s-, and p-processes in nucleosynthesis "If the neutron star is more than a few hours old, it is cold (T ≤ 109 K) on a nuclear energy scale (e.g. Baym & Pethick 1979), implying that the entropy per baryon is quite low (≤ 0.5k)."

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